Trabajo y Sociedad
Sociology of work, cultural studies and sociological/literary narratives
Nº 1,  2,  3, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 8, 9, 10,  11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21y 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 , 29, 30, 31, 32 y 33 Winter 2019 -  ISSN 1514-6871

www.unse.edu.ar/trabajoysociedad


 

Work and Society (Trabajo y Sociedad)

Sociology of work, cultural studies and sociological/literary narratives

 

Work and Society (Trabajo y Sociedad) is a peer-reviewed social science journal. The journal was created in 1999 and it is published twice a year by the Department of Sociology and Research Institute for Social Development (INDES) at the National University of Santiago del Estero (UNSE), Argentina. It is thematically, theoretically, and methodologically open, but it focuses mainly on the areas of sociology of work, cultural studies and the relationship between sociological and literary narratives. Its Editorial board is comprised of scholars from UNSE and CONICET, its Advisory board includes recognized national and international experts.


ABSTRACTS

Num. 33 Winter 2019

 

Num. 32 Summer 2019
Num. 31 Winter 2018
Num. 30 Summer 2018
Num. 29 Winter 2017
Num. 28 Summer 2017
Num. 27 Winter 2016
Num. 26 Summer 2016
Num. 25 Winter 2015
Num. 24 Summer 2015
Num. 23 Winter 2014
Num. 22 Summer 2014
Num 21 Winter 2013
Num. 20
Num. 19
Winter 2012
Num 18
 Summer 2012

Num. 17

Winter 2011

Num. 16

Summer 2011

Num. 15

Num. 14

Num. 13

Num. 12

Num. 11

Num. 10 Num.9

Num. 8

Num. 7

Num. 6 Num. 5 Num. 4 Num. 3 Num. 2 Num. 1

Número 33, Invierno 2019

AUTHORS, REFERENTS, IMAGE CREATORS


RURAL SCENARIOS: SOCIAL CONFLICTS AND AGRIBUSINESS

JOBS, PROFESSIONS AND LIFE MODES


IMAGES AND MAGNITUDES OF THE WORK


ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SCENARIOS: PROCESSES AND DEBATES

 

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Num. 32, Summer 2019

 

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME


UNION ACTION AND SALARY STRATEGIES


RURAL SCENARIOS: PEASANTS AND AGRIBUSINESS UNITS


URBAN SCENARIOS: THEORIES AND EXPERIENCES

GENDER DIMENSIONS: IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

OFFICES, OCCUPATIONS AND LIFE MODES

YOUTH: IMAGES AND AMOUNTS

 

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Num. 31, Winter 2018

 

DOSSIER:

POLICE WORK AND POLITICA IN ARGENTINA: PERSPECTIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

IMAGES AND DIMENSIONS OF WORK

MANAGERIAL ELITES AND PROFESSIONAL IDENTITIES

RURAL SCENARIOS: LABOR STRATEGIES

POLITICS AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

ANALYTIC PERSPECTIVES: TIMES, IDENTITIES, HISTORY

 

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Num. 30, Summer 2018

 

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES: POLITICS, WORK AND CULTURE

LABOR WORLDS: IMAGES AND MAGNITUDES

RURAL SCENES: LABOR STRATEGIES AND AGRO BUSINESS

 

YOUTHS: IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

TRADES, PROFESSIONS AND WAYS OF LIFE


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Num. 29, Winter 2017

 

PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS

 

DIMENSIONS OF RURAL WORK: IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

LATIN AMERICAN EXPERIENCES

 

STRUCTURAL HETEROGENEITY AND MARKET SEGMENTATION

 

IMAGES AND MAGNITUDES OF WORK

 

ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES AND ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES

 

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Num.28, Summer 2017
 

DOSSIER:
CARE OCCUPATIONS: WORK CONDITIONS IN ARGENTINA

 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SCENARIOS: PROCESSES AND DEBATES ESCENARIOS ECONÓMICOS Y SOCIALES: PROCESOS Y DEBATES

WORKING WORLDS: ETHNOGRAPHIES AND EXPERIENCES

 

PROCESSES OF EDUCATION AND CIRCULATION OF IDEAS

DIMENSIONS OF RURAL WORK: IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

 

LABOR MIGRATION: FACTS AND METHODOLOGIES

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Num 27, Winter 2016

 

DOSSIER:
¿HACIA DÓNDE SE DIRIGE EL SINDICALISMO EN ARGENTINA Y BRASIL?

 

TRAYECTORIAS EDUCATIVAS Y PROFESIONALES

 

LA NOCHE, LOS DÍAS: PERSPECTIVAS ANALÍTICAS Y REGISTROS ETNOGRÁFICOS

 

PASADOS Y PRESENTES DE LA ARGENTINA: PROYECTOS Y REALIDADES

VIDA EN LOS MEDIOS: ESCENAS Y PROCESOS

 

MUNDOS RURALES: PRODUCCIÓN TECNOLÓGICA Y ESTRATEGIAS FAMILIARES

 

INFORMALIDAD, CONFLICTIVIDAD SOCIAL E INMIGRACION

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Num. 26, Summer 2016

 

IMAGES AND FIGURES ON LABOR MARKER

 

THEORETICAL AND ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES IN SOCIOLOGY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ELITES, WORKING CLASS, CAPITALS

 

WOMEN AND YOUTH: SCENES AND PROCESSES

 

STRATEGIES IN PRODUCTION AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION

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Num. 25, Winter 2015

DOMESTICITIES: SCENES AND PROCESSES

EDUCATION AND ACADEMIC CAREER

POLICIES: PRACTICES OF DOMINATION

ETHNICITIES, IDENTITIES: LAWS AND SPEECHES

MIGRATION: SUBJECTIVE AND EXPERIENCES

RURAL AND REGIONAL WORK

MORAL ECONOMY: ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES

DIMENSIONS OF WORK: IMAGES AND FIGURES

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Num. 24, Summer 2015

COLLECTIVE ACTION AND UNION STRATEGIES

IMAGES AND FIGURES ON WORK

ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES AND ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND WORK

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Num. 23, vol. XVII, Winter 2014

WORLDS OF WORK: IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

OCCUPATIONAL SEGMENTATION: POWER RELATIONS AND STRATEGIES

SETTINGS POWER AND POLITICS: CHARACTER AND REPRESENTATIONS

CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE ACADEMIC FIELD AND EDUCATIONAL PROFILES

DIMENSION ECOLOGICAL AND CONFLICT SCENARIOS

ETHNICITIES: TERRITORIES AND SUBJECTIVITIES

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N. 22. Summer2014

RURAL WORLDS: IDENTITIES AND PROCESSES

URBAN SCENES: DOMESTICITY AND RELIGION

EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

WRITINGS, TRANSLATIONS, EDITIONS: SYMBOLIC AND POLITICAL POWER

WORK PROGRAMS AND TRADE STRATEGIES

CHARACTERS OF A SOCIAL CRISIS: BUSINESSMEN, WORKERS AND POLITICIANS

ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES ON THE LABOR WORLD

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N. 21, Winter 2013

RURAL LABOUR WORLDS: CHARACTER AND REPRESENTATIONS

URBAN SCENES: MANAGEMENT, ELITES ENTREPRENEURS AND PROFESSIONALS

CONFIGURATIONS OF THE POWER AND POLITICS

WRITING, THE MUSIC, THE SILVER WORK AS

DESIGN IDEAS: BUILDING KNOWLEDGE

FAMILY STRUCTURES: MARRIAGE GUIDELINES AND DIMENSIONS OFF GENDER AND AGE

IMAGES AND MAGNITUDES ON THE WORK

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Num 20, Summer 2013

SOCIAL SCIENCES: A PROFESSIONAL, CREATIVE EXPERIENCES AND FRAMES ANALYTICAL

WORK EXPERIENCE LATIN AMERICA: BRAZIL, CHILI, MEXICO, COLOMBIA AND PARAGUAY

COLLECTIVE ACTION AND UNION STRATEGIES

LABOUR RURAL WORLDS: IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

HEALTH VULNERABILITY AND CARE WORKFORCE

 

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Num 19, Winter, 2012

WORK IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

COLLECTIVE ACTIONTHE COUNTRY AND THE CITY: WORKING SCENARIOS

 

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL MIGRATION

MIRROR OF HISTORY

WOMEN AND YOUTH: SCENES AND PROCESSES

WORK IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

DESIGN IDEAS AND CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE

 

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Num 18, Summer, 2012

THE COUNTRY AND THE CITY: WORKING SCENARIOS


WRITINGS AND REPRESENTATIONS

ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVE ON SOCIAL DYNAMICS

WORK AND COLLECTIVE ACTION

HOMOGAMY, CULTURE AND BELIEFS

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 Num 17, vol. XV, Winter, 2011

MIRRORS OF THE HISTORY


ANALYTIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE SOCIAL DYNAMICS

CONFIGURATIONS OF THE POWER

CONSTITUTION OF COLLECTIVE IDENTITIES: THE WORKERS AND THEIR PRACTICES

LABOR WORLDS: ETHNOGRAPHIES AND EXPERIENCES


Num. 16, vol. XV, Summer, 2011

CONFIGURATIONS OF POWER IN ARGENTINE

 

LABOR WORLDS: ETHNOGRAPHIES AND EXPERIENCES

 

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON WORK AND CULTURE

 

DOSSIER: POLITICAL PROVINCIAL PROCESSES IN ARGENTINE

 

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Num. 15, vol. XIV, Fall, 2010

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Num. 14, vol. XIII, Summer 2010

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Num. 13, vol. XII, Spring 2009

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Num. 12, vol. XI, Fall 2009

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Number 11, vol. X, Spring 2008

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Number 10, vol. IX, Fall, 2008

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 Number 9, vol. IX, Winter, 2007

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Number 8, vol. VIII, Fall, 2006

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Number 7, vol. VII, junio septiembre, 2005

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Number 6, vol. VI, junio septiembre, 2003


Number 5, vol. V, sept. 2002  Abstracts

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Number 4, vol. IV, 2002  Abstracts

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Number 3, vol. III, winter 1999  Abstracts

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  Number 2, II  Abstracts 

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Number 1, vol. I  Abstracts

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Living from art: business models in the economic activity of independent musicians in Tijuana, Mexico

 

Redi  GOMIS e Iván CECEÑA

 

The work focuses on the study of the economic activity of independent musicians. It has two main objectives: (1) knowing the strategies or business models that they deploy in order to obtain income from their cultural proposals, and; (2) determine how they incorporate information technology into these projects. The empirical data come from fifteen interviews conducted to independent musicians of different musical genres that display their work in the city of Tijuana. In general, they tend to favor the modalities of live performances over the sale of songs. The Internet, especially social networks like Facebook, is used fundamentally under the logic of promotion.

Keywords: independent musician; business models; cultural economic activity; TICs.

 

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Public policy and its constituent elements: a look from the Social Income with Work Program - Argentina Trabaja

 

Cynthia FERRARI MANGO

 

Public policies, specifically social policies, promoted by the Ministry of Social Development of the Nation (hereinafter, MDSN) of Argentina from 2003 to 2015 revalued the cooperative and self-managed work. These policies revolved around the principles of the social economy and the centrality of the territory.

As of 2009, one of the programs that gained most relevance was the Argentina Trabaja - Social Income with Work Program that proposed generating jobs through the establishment of cooperatives (Resolution 3182/2009). The general objective of this work is to analyze the generalities, antecedents and counterpoints of the Social Income with Work Program - Argentina Works from its emergence in 2009 under the MDSN until 2015.

The methodology is qualitative within which various techniques were developed and was based on the analysis of documents and, mainly, on the bibliographic review. Likewise, sources of secondary data on program background were collected in terms of social policies with labor compensation, which were turned over to a database and analyzed according to their objectives, origins and responsibilities. This article makes a relevant contribution in the field of public policy specifically in the area of social policy.

Keywords: Social policy, cooperativism, Ministry of Social Development, Argentina Work - Social Income Program with Work

 

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The Plan de Lucha of the Argentine CGT and the regional dynamics of the unrest in the Gran Rosario towards the middle of the 1960s

 

Silvia SIMONASSI

 

This article analyzes the process of factory occupations carried out in Argentina towards the middle of 1964 and arranged by the Confederación General delTrabajo (CGT) as part of a Plan de Luchainiciated in January of the previous year. It is investigated in the particularities of its application in Gran Rosario, one of the most important manufacturing zones of the country. Some features of the dynamics of labor disputes in the región are explored, as well as the changes produced in the local CGT and the positions assumed by the actors around the process.

Keywords: working class, factory occupations, unrest, Gran Rosario, sixties

 

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Police, Democratization and Proximity in Portugal: Ethnographic Essay

Susana DURÃO


Based on a multi-level ethnographic approach, this
article proposes a reading that shows the contemporary tensions in a policing model that is centralized and monopolistic by the action of a thePortuguesenational State, and simultaneously pulverizes itself in the territorysupportedbyan operational dynamic located in small police stations. Although the recent democratic transition has led the urban police to adopt a philosophy of proximity policing institutional change has several hesitations that point out how police stations,local policing and officersoften work without a clear plan of what is its activity, mantainingresidues of a not so distantauthoritarian past.

Keywords: policing, proximity, democracy, policemodel, Portugal

 

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Ciclos de acaparamiento de tierra y procesos de diferenciación agraria en el noroeste de Argentina

 

Carla Gras

Facundo Zorzoli


The complexity of the processes associated with the expansion of agribusiness requires spatial and temporary detailed situated analysis. In this paper, we address changes in land tenure and their impacts in terms of agrarian differentiation in the northwest of Argentina. Drawing upon debates on global land grabbing, we explore three dynamics that shape them: land valorisation, environmental degradation and generation of agricultural business models. We integrate the role of technology and environmental effects in the analysis of land grabbing. The research is based on qualitative and quantitative methods (ethnographic work, interviews, field-scanning, and analysis of official statistical data).

Key-words: Land-Grabbing, Agribusiness,agricultural business models, Northwest of Argentina

 

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Convertibility, political performativity and agrarian protest. Of the initial consensuses and their limits in the Cordoba pampas (1991-2002)

 

Gabriel Fernando CARINI

 

The objective of this article is to provide a tour of some of the dimensions assumed by the agrarian conflict in the province of Córdoba during the validity of the Convertibility Law. Our focus will be on collective protest actions, since we consider it a privileged access road for the analysis of both the demands channeled to the State and the messages within the representation structure of the interests of agriculture. Under this assumption, we will take as a guiding principle the idea that at the end of the hyperinflationary crisis of 1989 - which marked the emergency phase of a new social regime of accumulation - both the main areas of negotiation and the conflict networks that characterized the relational dynamics between government and agricultural entities. In this context, convertibility emerged as a resource of high political performativity that allowed successive governments to evade structured demands by a large majority of the demands of the rural world

Key words: Convertibility, Agrarian entities, Fields of negotiation and conflictual networks, Political Performativity

 

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After the conflict. The parliamentary actions of the Argentinian agrarian bourgeoisie (2009-2014)

 

Eduardo Sartelli y Nicolás Grimaldi

 

 In the following paper, we will undertake a detailed study of the parliamentary actions of the agrarian corporations over the 2009-2014 period. The aim is to study the actual existence of the so-called “Group A”. That is, a consolidated parliamentary bloc, tied to agrarian interests and capable of dragging certain parties an impose its will. For that purpose, we have, first and foremost, undertaken a brief review on the project processing linked to the agrarian sector before the 2008 conflict. Secondly, we will seek to reconstruct which has been the preparation of the agrarian entities for the elections in June 2009 and the political actions of the deputies linked to the agrarian sector. For the latter, we will analyze the economic projects introduced by the deputies from the agrarian sector in the Commission of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fisheries of the National Chamber of Deputies, as well as the projects introduced by the different political parties and its final destination. Finally, we will track the main discussions and questions between the agrarian entities during the analyzed period. Looking at the documents, the evidence shows the absence of a bloc called “Group A”, it also shows that the parties have introduced various projects, not always linked to a business interest in a specific layer of the agrarian bourgeoisie, and lastly, that that heterogeneous political actions did not achieve the approval of any project. 

Keywords: Agrarian bourgeoisie, Parliament, Business corporations, State

 

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Displacingboundaries: theoretical approaches to a comprehension of total labour in Chile

 

Isabel Margarita NÚÑEZ SALAZAR

 

This paper aims to problematize the concept of labour from diverse theoretical perspectives. Incorporating the total social organization of labour’s analysis, the article revise the principal debates by which has been criticised the comprehension of labour from an employment’s perspective. On the contrary, the article invite to a deeply reflexion on some new ways of understanding the total labour and focalising its interest in bargaining new theoretical perspectives which has been opening possibilities for innovative and complex comprehension of labour. The categories of social reproduction, gender perspective and housework are the main articulators of the reflexion.

Keywords: Labour, care, housework, reproductive work, time

 

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The Argentine economy in postconvertibility (2002-2015). A debate on the thesis of extractivist-primarization

Igal KEJSEFMAN

 

The manifest aim of this work is to put into debate the thesis of the reprimarization of the Argentine economy, usually related to extractivist theses. The relevance of critically addressing the primary-extractivist thesis is that it was very widespread in recent years in academic and even political spheres. The question we want to answer refers to whether the evident expansion of soybeans and other primary / extractive activities forms a process of (re) primarization of the economy or if it constitutes the manifestation of another process whose characteristics we should, in this case, enunciate.

Throughout the paper we will analyze the external sector and international insertion to account for the drivers of capital accumulation in post-convertibility (punctually 2002-2015) seeking to specify the role of the primary / extractive sector. From this we will discuss the relevance of the notion "(re) primarización", and propose that to name the characteristics of Argentine capitalism in the first decade and a half of the 21st century it is more pertinent to refer to "neodevelopment".

Keywords: Argentina, post-convertibility, primarization, neo-development

 

 

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The configuration of the union model of Argentina and Brazil in its relationship with the State (From colony to neoliberalism)

 

 

                                                                                                                        Matías CARO


The present work seeks through a comparative analysis of the history of Argentina and Brazil, providing a hypothetical explanation of why these two south American countries have developed different union models. This is how, observing a more classist and combative trade unionism in Brazil and a more corporate and negotiating syndicalism in Argentina, we offer as main explanatory hypothesis that: the difference in the state attitude toward workers' organizations, mainly restrictive in Brazil and acceptance in the Argentina, produced a combative unionism in Brazil and corporatist (Peronist) unionism in Argentina. To base our hypothesis, we will add to the analysis the specific treatment of the development of public sector unions in both countries.

Key words: Unionism – Class unionism – Corporatism – Argentina – Brazil.

 

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Federalism is no excuse: Argentina's provinces and social rights

 

 

Horacio Javier ETCHICHURY

 

 This article intends to demonstrate that each Argentinean province has a duty to respect, protect and fulfill a broad set of social rights. This includes rights enshrined in its local constitution; rights recognized in Argentina’s constitution and international treaties ratified by Argentina, with or without constitutional rank; and rights established by federal authorities in use of powers transferred to them by the provinces. This conclusion is based in constitutional supremacy and provincial powers to enact local constitutions. The article rejects the use of federalism as an excuse to exempt Provinces from their duties with regard to social rights. In addition to that, the article stresses the relevance of these legally binding rights in connection with social policy design and analysis.

Keywords: social rights; federalism; provincial constitutions

 

 

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The role of actors in the return to public control of Aerolíneas Argentinas. Public enterprises and nationalization policies in Argentina after 2001

 

                                                                                                                      Manuel YAÑEZ

 

After the Argentine crisis of 2001, a series of changes occurred in the relations between the State and the market that, among other aspects, were expressed in a growing importance of public enterprises.

However, the nationalizations did not imply a general public policy; on the contrary, nationalizations coexisted with the continuity of former privatized enterprises.

In this paper, we present an analysis of these processes based on the case study of a particular public company: the airline Aerolíneas Argentinas. Based on various sources (documents, newspaper articles, laws), we approach chronologically the period prior to the nationalization of the company in 2008.

We focus the analysis on the role of the different actors (such as unions, private groups and government agencies) in the stages of formulation and adoption of the public nationalization policy of Aerolineas Argentinas.

Keywords: public enterprises, nationalizations, State, Argentina

 

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Staring at the others: inclusion and pessimism on Connecting Equality Programme assessments

 

 

Magdalena LEMUS

 

In this paper we analyze how teenagers from the upper-middle class understand privilege and deprivation. In order to understand how they value access and use of digital technologies and their views on inequalities, we interviewed high school students from La Plata (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) and asked them their opinions on Programa Conectar Igualdad.

Our findings show that young people have different opinions on Connecting Equality Programme and the people who benefit from it. While some value positively the Programme, others consider it to be a waste of money and an inefficient strategy to diminish inequalities. Youth opinions are linked to how they value digital technologies in their own lives but are also linked to with their opinions and expectations on public policies and politicians. Finally, this paper aims to contribute to the study of public policies by highlighting the multiple ways in which they are received by different people.

Keywords: Inequalities – digital technologies – young people – deprivation - privilege

 

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The relevance of the Work in the Theory of communicative action by Jürgen Habermas

 

Juan Alberto FRAIMAN


This article deals with the relevance of the work in the theory of communicative action of the German thinker Jürgen Habermas. Our treatment is part of the general debate on the issue of whether the "work" is a central theoretical category or relevant in contemporary social theory. From a number of references on the typology of social action and a conception of society in two planes, such as system and life world, arrive at a dual notion of work to be recognized as the backbone of the theory of communicative action. Therefore, work, will occupy a central place in a theory of society that tries to overcome the assumptions of a philosophy of consciousness and there take a linguistic and intersubjective basis. Ultimately, recovering a dual notion of work, will express the tensions, conflicts and even paradoxical relationships that are inscribed in the core of Habermasian social theory.

Keywords: work; communicative action; intersubjectivity; critical theory.

 

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From political history to gender studies: the historiography on the world of labor in the first half of the 20th century in Buenos Aires

  

Ludmila SCHEINKMAN


The aim of this paper is to revisit the historiography on the world of workers in the years prior to the irruption of Peronism in Argentina, to ponder some of the parameters from which they have been looked at, and are studied again today. In order to do this we reconstruct the general outlines of the field's research, from the earliest militant interpretations to flourishment of social history. Secondly, we address the contribution that gender studies have made to the historiography on male and female workers. Finally, we review the current trends in historiography, to propose some lines of analysis or possible bridges to think this field of studies from a social and cultural history revitalized by gender studies, to expand a notion of class that has been rigidly anchored to the productive space.

Key words: historiography; Workers; labor movement; Left; Gender studies

 

 

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Persistent searches: intensive use of drugs, outpatient treatments, daily life and self-care

 

Ana Laura CANDIL

 
This paper focuses on the description of a cluster of practices conducted by subjects intensive drug users to themselves –caused by–transit public outpatient treatment to reduce and/or exclude intake in 
disadvantaged contexts. To this end, I summarized and problematize analytical notions of self-atention, self-control and self-care; and listed practices of care and self-control of problem drug users living in 
segregated neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The research was conducted under the guidelines of qualitative methodology, specifically the ethnographic approach in an interdisciplinary outpatient and 
public health institution.
Keywords: intensive use of drugs, outpatient treatment, self-care, disadvantaged populations.

 

 

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The environmental issue in Latin America: a reading on Enrique Dussel

                                                                                                                                      

César Augusto COSTA

Carlos Frederico LOUREIRO


The essay discusses the contributions of the philosopher Enrique Dussel for the environmental issue and the process of struggle in Latin America from the perspective of "no rights" from the point of view epistemic and political. Aims to understand the political proposal of Dussel about the reality of environmental struggles linked to the process of expropriation on three occasions. At first, we will reflect the origin of the modern world-system and the implications of this historic process for the environmental issue. In the second, we will analyze the relationship between the environmental issue, the social struggles and their process of expropriation in Latin America. In the end, we will examine how the environmental issue in the political debate and expanded the social struggles in the light of the philosophy of Enrique Dussel, viewing the historicity of the victims of the world-system or "no rights" expropriated by the Eurocentric matrix and exclusionary.

Keywords: Latin America. Enrique Dussel. Social struggles. Environmental issue. Without rights.

 

  

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Labor Subcontracting in Argentina: Antecedents, Regional Context and Integral Regulation Proposal

 

Sebastián ETCHEMENDY,

Guillermo GIANIBELLI 

y Juan Manuel OTTAVIANO

 

 

There is today in Argentina an important body of studies on the impact of labor subcontracting in different sectors of the economy and on workers. However, the studies carried out from the sociology of work, and the analyses and regulatory proposals made from the institutional and legal spheres, have run in separate lanes. The main goal of this study is to complement both approaches. Taking as input recent analyses from labor sociology, which illuminate the heterogeneity of the phenomenon of subcontracting as a key point, the article makes a regulatory proposal that accounts for this multiplicity of situations in the labor market, and aims to counteract the levels of precarization that labor outsourcing entails today for large masses of workers.

Keywords: Labor Subcontracting, Sociology of Work, Labor Regulation

 


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Evolution of the thought of Raul Prebisch in the conformation of the structuralist theory

 

 Noelia GURMENDI

 

 The present work intends to examine the foundational approaches of the structuralist theory, which bears the imprint of Raúl Prebisch, who not only inspired and directed it, but also drafted it to a great extent, conferring its unmistakable style. Convinced of the urgent need to create a coherent set of ideas to analyze and think in a specific way the phenomena of Latin America, Prebisch built his own thought from a vision of economic development and the international insertion of the region.

Keywords: structuralism, center / periphery, development.

 

 

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One constitution, two republics: federalism, liberalism and democracy in the constitutional thought of D. F. Sarmiento and J. B. Alberdi.

 

Guillermo E. JENSEN

 

 In the present work we will analyze the different projects of constitutional realization of D.F. Sarmiento and J.B. Alberdi in Argentine constitutional moment (1852-1860), projected under the same federal Constitution, liberal and republican. To do this, we will recover some methodological approaches and tools that will allow us to better understand political theory in constitutional thought. Then we will analyze comparatively the proposals of constitutional realization of Alberdi and Sarmiento referred to the federal organization, the different conceptions of liberalism that informed their proposals and the place of democracy in the project of republic of both authors.

Keywords: Constitutional history, republic, federalism, liberalism

 

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State, workers and employers in the informal employement of argentine’s apparel industry: 1975-2018

Gustavo LUDMER

 

 Currently, approximately 60% of those employed in Argentine sewing work under informal conditions. This problem was extended by the crisis that the national industry went through as a result of neoliberal policies applied during the seventies and nineties. The bankruptcy of companies led to the destruction of thousands of formal jobs, many of which went into the informal sector in clandestine workshops, a problem that has not changed significantly in the last fifteen years. The objective of this paper is to answer the following question: What was the role of the State, workers and the business sector in the extension of labor informality in the Argentine garment industry? In recent decades, predatory competition has taken place, driven by successive cost reductions through evasion of social charges and non-compliance with safety conditions. The poor unionization weakened the power of the workers' collective. The State played a double role: on the one hand, diverse economic policies led to the crisis in the sector; on the other, the bodies responsible for inspection and for guaranteeing compliance with labor regulations reduced the intensity of controls, an element that made it possible to extend the problem to current levels.

Keywords: informalemployement, apparel industry, neoliberalism.

 

 

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A Confinement in the Confines: Ricardo Roja’s Archipiélago as an Americaniation of the Inland



Alejandra MAILHE

 

 

This paper explores an imaginary representation of the “Inland”, as is deployed by Ricardo Rojas in his essay Archipiélago (1934), in order to think Tierra del Fuego as a border area, riddled with temporalities and cultural substrates in conflict with each other. Rojas transforms this region in a space, which is saturated with socio-cultural connotations which are linked to past and present. Besides Rojas elevates this region to a sinécdoque of the inland of the totality of the country and even to a model of the American dimension of Argentina, which is blocked by other social discourses. The paper also reflects about the esoteric experience of the “initiatory journey” which is implicit in Roja’s essay, which is attuned to the imaginary representation of the journey in other author’s essays, which are linked to the Antipositivism and the Reforma Universitaria, as in the case of José Vasconcelos. The paper also reflects on the esoteric experience of the “initiatory journey,” which is implicit in Rojas’s essay, attuned with the imaginary representation of the journey in other authors’ essays linked to antipositivism and the Reforma Universitaria, as in the case of José Vasconcelos. Besides, this text contrasts the idealization of the “lost” indigenous world, in Archipiélago, with the vision deployed by other authors such as José Imbelloni, which are central in the consolidation of the scientific anthropology in Argentina.

Keywords: Ricardo Rojas – Archipiélago – Tierra del Fuego – Indigenism – José Vasconcelos – José Imbelloni.

 

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Psychosocial Risks in the Academic Profession: An interpretative analysis of the discourse of Argentinian academics

 

Lucas PUJOL-COLS, Mariana FOUTEL y Luis PORTA

 

 The academic profession has turned into a highly stressful occupation, which increases the relevance of studying the psychosocial risks that affect scholars in higher education institutions. So far, the majority of prior research on psychosocial risks in the context of universities has measured the prevalence of generic taxonomies of psychosocial factors, thus neglecting to a considerable extent the consideration of other context-specific psychosocial variables that may be affecting the academic profession, particularly in Argentina. Drawing on qualitative evidence collected from eight in depth-interviews with scholars from an Argentinian public university, this article explores six specific categories of psychosocial risks affecting this sample of Argentinian scholars. The results revealed that increasing job demands such as high work overload, double presence, and feelings of distributive unfairness, along with insufficient levels of fundamental job resources such as career opportunities, external feedback, and participation in decision-making are the main psychosocial risks affecting the participants of this study.

Keywords: Psychosocial risks; University; Higher Education; University Teachers; Qualitative analysis.

 

 

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César Aira in Interviews: Building a Writer’s Figure (1981-2001)

 

 María Belén RIVEIRO

 

 This article focuses on how César Aira builds his writer's figure from the moment his first book is published (1981) until 2001, year when I identify numerous indicators of a growing prestige. The documentary work I carried out allowed me to compile interviews granted by Aira published in periodic publications of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Therefore, I was able to analyse the meaning of the image of hidden writer Aira is usually identified with. This article studies Aira's account, his answers in interviews, as an object of study in relation to his trajectory and the literary field with the focus on the various meanings assigned by Aira himself. I have built a periodization divided into three moments to analyse how Aira presents himself in public as a writer, and I have used terms Aira himself has introduced: the avant-garde writer, the personal myth, and the silent writer.

Keywords: sociology of literature, writer's figure, Argentine literature, literary field

 

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Trade union model and inter-union conflict in Argentina (2008-2013)

  

Cecilia SENÉN GONZÁLEZ

David TRAJTEMBERG

Carla BORRONI

Lucía Montenegro LOEWY

 

 

The aim of this paper is to describe inter-union disputes and the way in which they are dealt with in the context of the Argentinian labour relations system. Drawing on our research, we are able to respond to our central questions that seek to elucidate whether (public or private) trade union models constitute an obstacle which cultivates, or an advantage which helps to avoid or resolve these types of disputes. The Labour Conflicts database compiled by the Ministry of Work, Employment, and Social Security during the period 2008 to 2013 was used as a source for our survey of labour conflicts in both public and private sectors.

Keywords: Inter-union conflict; trade union model; public sector;  private sector;  Argentina

 

 

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The social valueofwork in a borderzone: the case ofwomenbagayeras in Tartagal, Argentina

 

Areli VELOZ CONTRERAS

 

This article focuses on the social value that is given to the work done by women "bagayeras" in a border zone, that of Tartagal (Argentina) - Yacuiba (Bolivia). Through qualitative methodology, based on the observation and interviews techniques, we discuss what categories, such as gender, race, class and nationality, intersect in the work activity, which has been redefined by political and economic changes in the last years. This study intends to give an account of the cultural and social valuation of the work that is embody, through the intersection of categories, in specific bodies and where the border zones destabilize and reinforce them. The argumentation arises through the conceptual discussion about the border and the value of the work; later Tartagal is described as a border zone. Subsequently, reference is made to the control of the cruise of goods and the forms of work of women in the border zone. It is concluded that the moral configuration that produces a border zone legitimizes the value of unequal work expressed in concrete bodies and activities.

Keywords: social value, work, bagayeras, border zone, Tartagal.

 

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Boys, casual labour (and sometimes swindle). Precarious jobs experiences in Universal Child
Allowance beneficiaries in Catamarca province

Cecilia Melendez, Claudio Urbano y José Yuni

 In this work two phenomena that are present in an articulated way in the life of young people from vulnerable sectors are analysed. On one hand, it is school attendance based on social policies that accompany high school level compulsory education. On the other hand, it is the early incorporation into casual labour which prefigures socio-biographical and educational personal development marked by precariousness. The policies of conditioned transferences for young people up to the age of 18 that demand school attendance and the increase of casual labour reinforce the tensions between inclusion and exclusion. Through the reconstruction of three cases of young people from Catamarca it is described the relationships that young people from vulnerable sectors develop with social protection, casual labour or illegality as survival strategies. Furthermore, it is considered the representations that emerge from those relations and form their own social identity. The material for analysis consists of a corpus revealed by focused groups of   high schools students in Catamarca province and observation register.  The strategies that young people develop in the relationships and activities in order to survive as an exercise of anti-establishment movement or what is the same, the remainder of empowerment generated by the same policies under those life circumstancies.
Key words
: high school, young people, policies of conditioned transferences, precariousness labour.

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Aesthetic surgery as a technology of gender. Going beyond the “cultural dope” model and the “female agent” approach

Marcelo Córdoba

The purpose of this article is to present an analytical approach to the practice of aesthetic surgery understood as a “technology of gender”. To this aim, it moves on to a critical exposition and a comparative analysis of two emblematic researches on the practice: The Face and Plastic Surgery (1974), by anthropologist Frances Macgregor, and Reshaping the Female Body (1995), by sociologist Kathy Davis. The article argues that, although Davis’ “female agent” approachhas advantages over Macgregor’s “cultural dope” model, the former nevertheless presents certain problems of a conceptual and a political kind. To illustrate these problems, it underscores the reiteration of some of the presuppositions of the "female agent" approach by the hegemonic media discourse of normative femininity, specifically, women's magazines. This is why the article concludes affirming that it is convenient to adress the analysis of aesthetic surgery with foucauldian tools, which allow to conceptualize it as a biomedical device of subjectification, going beyond the dichotomy between the celebration of the patient’s assumed agency and the lamentation of her as a passive victim of patriarchal structures.
Keywords
: Cosmetic sugery, technology of gender, female agent, Female beauty culture, Feminism, Subjectification

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Enemies or guarantors of freedom? : The problematization of trade union issue in the field
of Argentine liberalism (1955-1976)

Victoria Haidar

 This article aims to rebuild the divergent and even contradictory readings that the “trade union question” aroused in the field of Argentine liberalism between 1955 and 1976; pointing out also the convergent arguments and valuations. On the basis of a review of a corpus of documents, we distinguished three positions of enunciation: firstly, we consider the work of spreading the neoliberal position that is radically “anti-union”, carried out by the “Centro de Estudios sobre la Libertad”. Secondly, we characterize the “pragmatic” point of view which, in relation to trade unions, held Álvaro Alsogaray, an economist and politician identified with the also neo-liberalism’ “social market economy” approach. Thirdly, we discuss the reflections that, pondering the contribution that unions can make to the configuration of a pluralist democracy, as well as the dangers of their ascendant political influence, were articulated by a set of young catholic-liberal intellectuals that were formed in the field of law and social sciences.
Keywords: Trade Union Question; Liberalism; Neoliberalism; Argentina; Post-peronism

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Niños que luchan. Photography as historical source to study subordinate classes’s  struggle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Guillermina Laitano

This text presents an analysis of the Niños que luchan photographic exhibition. It refers to a conflict for decent affordable housing leaded by the Asamblea Sin Techo in Mar del Plata city between 2008 and 2009. The analysis pursues, as a first objective, to rebuild the exhibition’s production context, namely, submit his author, and to analyze the forms and meanings from which it was built. Secondly, exhibition’s analysis in itself is presented, with the objective to give an account to ordinariness in the subordinate classes’s social struggle process. Also, in the context of both objectives we describe the photography´s utilization potentialities as social and historical inquiry’s source are presented, as well as certain methodological precautions necessary to take into account when working with photographs analytically.
Keywords
: recent history, social conflict, historical source, photography, documentalism.

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Among the precariousness and self-management: reconfigurations in the subjectivities inherent workers in fishing
companies recovered from Necochea and Quequén (Argentina)

María Luciana Nogueira

Work occupies a central place in the subjective configuration and social organization, being a cultural production that promotes subjects insertion into relational and community plots and allows a "to do with" objects and others, from dimensions of instinct and wish.In the current socio-economic system, capitalism, premium wage labor, which involves suffering, degradation, oppression, alienation and precariousness for workers. However, there are experiences that show chinks that allow to question and rethink the subjectivities of the workers.
In this framework we analyze speeches of workers in the fishing industry Necochea and Quequén members enterprises recovered. After the first stage of the struggle, once achieved labor continuity through a self-managed mode starts the path of labor organization in the field of production, from where subjectivities rewire their positions and their link to the job.
The question that guide exposure is: How are unfold the workers' subjectivities in the new self-managed work configuration? and it will be addressed based on interviews to members of labor collectives.
Keywords: work; subjective reconfiguration, fishing companies recovered

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Cooperativism and young labor inclusion.
A current Argentine experience

 Viviana Fridman y Analia Otero

Labor inclusion of young people in Argentina calls the current debate on the major problems and obstacles posed as well as on the prospects to address this concern with various alternatives. This text aims to present progress of an ongoing investigation in which we study the case of the Cooperative Posta de San Martin as an experience that realizes an alternative work linked to the social economy, gestated at the beginning of the decade 2000 in the context of profound changes on restructuring in the organizational forms of wage labor.Here you interested investigate the genesis, evolution and dilemmas facing as well as the dynamics of production and labor organization of the cooperative in light of its potential as an experience that brings a large proportion of young workers who have between 18 and 30 years old. The methodological strategy adopted is part of the qualitative perspective, working half-structures based on interviews and surveys. After analyzing a number of features that make the dynamics of this experience, it can be considered as a training and training and job placement open to young people without previous experience were identified.
Keywords
: youth, work, cooperatives, social economy

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Political action and corporations under the kirchnerist administration:
the case of Sociedad Rural Argentina (2003-2008)

Nicolás Perez Trento

Along the years of the kirchnerist administration, the business associations have gone through several transformations and realignments, and the direction and character of their political action have also shifted in comparison to previous periods. In this paper, we aim to address this issue within the frame of the first five-year period of kirchnerism, and focusing on the actions of one of the most traditional associations in Argentina, which represents the Pampas Argentinian landlords: the Sociedad Rural Argentina (SRA). We will seek to analyze its behavior in this new political scenario. Specifically, we will look into the link between the association and the kirchnerist administrations, as well as the alliances established with other organizations. In order to do this, we will first characterize the main economic tendencies of this period, showing that the growth in land rent was appropriated not only by landlords, but also by other subjects; then, we will review some of the most significant tendencies in the actions of the different corporations. On this ground, we will finally analyze the political action of the SRA, dividing it into four periods and presenting some conclusions. 
Keywords
: political action, corporations, landlords, kirchnerism, Sociedad Rural Argentina

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Labour, social and solidary economy and new technological trends

 Susana R. Presta

 

The crisis of 2007 has marked some trends that indicate a new global socio-technical mutation. Accompanied in the last years by the construction and consolidation of the subject-entrepreneur and the “entrepreneurship”, the so-called "emerging technologies" begin to be linked to forms of organization of the social and solidary economy.
In relation to the aforementioned, this article will focus on the following hypothesis: the interest and emphasis placed by the public sector and the private sector, both in the forms of organization of the social and solidary economy - embedded in the ideas of "entrepreneurship" and subjects-entrepreneurs-as well as in the social relations they enable, are linked to new tendencies of socio-technical transformation that imply a greater decentralization of production, distribution, exchange and consumption in today's capitalism.
Our work aims to provide a series of theoretical reflections on the orientation of neoliberalism in today's capitalism, the increasing digitalization of work and, especially, its interest in the social and solidary economy. We will focus on the critical analysis of selected authors and documents from international as well as national organizations.
Key-words: Social and solidary economy, emerging technologies, labour digitization, social relations, neoliberalism.

 

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Gender and social programs: the construction of a new research agenda

 Vilma Paura y Carla Zibecchi

This paper proposes two main objectives. On the one hand, to inquire about the conditions of production that made it possible in last decades to consolidate a field of study related to welfare social policy -in particular, welfare social programs- from a gender perspective and / or with a feminist approach, which has demonstrated substantive advances. On the other hand, the purpose is to take account of an interesting bibliographic corpus, which is part of this field of study and allows giving visibility to women as central agents in the domain of social policies.
Keywords: gender, social programs, research agenda, academic production.

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The Police of the City of Buenos Aires: Official speech, tensions and divergences around the configuration of a new police force

 Elea Maglia y Violeta Dikenstein

On January 1, 2017, the agreement between the National State and the City of Buenos Aires materializes. This agreement purposes a gradual and progressive transfer of personnel, competencies, services and tangible and intangible resources of the Argentine Federal Police related to not federal matters, to the area of the city. Therefore, the Police of the City of Buenos Aires is born. More than a year after its creation, in this work we propose to analyze the configuration of the new police force from two aspects. From a qualitative approach, based on in-depth interviews, participant observation in institutional acts and normative analysis, we focus, on the one hand, on the way in which this force is presented and defined from the official discourse, that is, from the normative, the institutional acts and the interpretations of officials of the executive power of the City. On the other hand, we analyze the way in which this conjunction of two different institutions is lived bureaucratic and affective, from the perspective of the transferred police personnel and those who remained in the federal sphere.
Keywords:
police, technology, transfer, official voice, city police.

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Lexicometric analysis of partisan presses AlternativaSocialistas (MST) and Prensa obrera (PO), on the political conflict in Santiago del Estero between 2003 and 2005

             César Díaz Brandán


This article seeks to analyze the political conflict that crossed the province of Santiago del Estero during the period 2003 - 2005, through the lexicometric analysis of the presses of the left Trots-kyist parties, namely: Socialist Alternative published by the Socialist Movement of the Workers (MST) and Workers' Word published by the PartidoObrero (PO).
The analysis includes two levels, on the one hand we examine the intensity that each publication manifests from the classical perspective of the conflict analysis taking the elements constituting it (time and intensity) and from this we can visualize what is the spectrum of the political conflict that manifest each publication.
And on the other hand, we analyze the set of representative words and the relational structure of these definitions in the proposed analysis scheme; managing to identify the discursive scheme through which both publications pass. In addition, the terms of the Santiago-Trotskyist universe (words they share) are shown, distinguishing the historical platform and the propaganda in its opposition function and the equivalents

Keywords:
Political Conflict, Lexicometric Analysis, Left Trotskyist, Santiago del Estero

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Inequality from the top: Analysis of Buenos Aires’ highest  socioeconomic strata  (1980-2010)

 Gabriela Benza y Mariana Heredia

 Even though the analyses of social inequalities assume a relational perspective, most of research on the subject  has focused on lower social groups. It is certainly the urgency of state intervention that explains this preference. Nevertheless, understanding and long lasting reversion of social inequalities requires considering not only disadvantaged but also advantaged groupes of existing social order. In dialogue with a new international literature and in order to contribute to the knowledge of Argentina, this paper aims to analyze social inequalities based on a specific inquiry about the most favored sectors in Buenos Aires. To this end,  1) evaluates household surveys as sources for their study; 2) reconstructs the evolution of this stratum between 1980 and 2010 and 3) analyzes certain characteristics of its members. After detailing the inadequacies of the available sources and demonstrating the increase in the participation of this stratum in income from 1980 to 2004 and relative retreat since then as well as the concentration of some attributes in these sectors is revealed: high educational levels, residential segregation, high levels of activity and occupations in medium and large companies’ management.
Keywords:
upper class, rich, social stratification, income distribution, inequality.

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Family farming: inclusion and hegemony.  Analysis from local experiences on the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

 Fernando González y Mabel Manzanal

 This paper analyzes the politics of inclusion of family farming (FF) within the framework of territorial development strategies implemented in Argentina in the period 2003-2015. The work is structured throughout an interdisciplinary perspective, with contributions from sociology, political science, anthropology and geography. Our initial premise is that public policies for FF are part of the process of building hegemony, and as such seek integration integration of the subaltern sectors in the economic and social development. This integration presents degrees of subordination (economic, political and ideological) which are relevant for analyzing local power relations, which we precisely investigated from the conception of territory as power. In this context, our object of study is the policies for FF and the respective territorial development. The research is based on two case studies from the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina): Benito Juárez and Coronel Suárez. In them a qualitative study was carried out mainly through interviews of key informants. Further information related to the analyzed public policy was also supplemented through secondary sources from a local, provincial and national level. In this way, the different actions the state has pursued to include family farmers were analyzed. Moreover, it was also analyzed how these actions transform the power relations throughout the different scales they were applied upon. These are in turn transformations in the territory and in the territorialities, center of our analysis.
Keywords: family farming, public policies, inclusion, hegemony.

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Extractivism and education. A critical look at the secondary education in the province of Córdoba / Argentina

Nicolas Forlani 

 The present work aims at reflecting from a critical perspective the link between the expansion of extractivist production logics and the curricular contents of the middle school in the territories in which such logics of accumulation by dispossession occur. In order to achieve this task in this research we will use an empirical reference: that of the province of Cordoba (a "model" territory in terms of the expansion of agribusiness in Argentina) and the educational proposal (the curricular contents) set by the Ministry of Education of this province for the formation of the students in the middle school. The results of the research reflect the absence of specific contents capable of dimensioning the negative impacts of agribusiness as a hegemonic agricultural logic. Interpretive lines are proposed to understand such deliberate absences. The paper concludes with the presentation of three approaches (for non-neutral education, ecology of knowledge, for an education not only critical but also propositive) whose horizon points to the construction of a postextractivist education.
Keywords
: extractivism, agribusiness, education, Córdoba / Argentina, agroecology.

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Multidimensional peasant economy: repertoire of activities and tension

Magali Luciana Paz

 The economy of rural population in Cruz del Eje Department, northwest of Córdoba state (Argentina) is based on a delicate balance where instability is constant situation. These groups need a defensive mechanism: household unit, which efficiently fulfills the task of preserving socio-cultural bonds in sometimes critical conditions. The goal of this article is to analyze which are the economic strategies that these domestic units develop and that allow them to guarantee its members daily survival. This subject acquires greater interest in a moment in which the area, of ancient colonial settlement and peasant tradition, has been suffering from the first decades of the twentieth century the destruction of its self-sufficiency, a characteristic that it had maintained over time, due to the increasing influxes of agrarian capitalism in the region.
Keywords
: Peasant Household Units; economic strategies; activities’s calendar; commercial engagement; conflict situations.

 

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Alfalfa cycle stagnation at Alto Valle in Río Negro. Spatial configuration and production tendencies from a regulatory vision.

Jorge Andrés Vera y Martín Alejandro Ferreyra

 The current paper presents an analysis of the alfalfa production cycle that has fostered the origin of fruit growing at Alto Valle in Río Negro and Neuquén. To such end, firstly the alfalfa production cycle will be described with a focus on the late 1930´s, when such crop went stagnant and –consequently- gave way to the emergence of fruit growing in the region. The relative crisis of the alfalfa production cycle might be taken as a tendency to marginalize the activity, by creating economic and social habits that might have deteriorated development possibilities in the region. At this point we will study the impact of institutional ways on the capital accumulation dynamics, whose regularities have mostly been passed on from one circuit to another by highlighting the degree of concentration at the different stages of the production circuit and tendencies of the trading objective.
Key words
: Río Negro – alfalfa production – regulationism – production cycle

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The Home-School case for the blind Corina Lona and the development process of the intervention practices on blindness in Salta

 Valentina AHUMADA

  In this work the case of emergence of “Home-school for the blind Corina Lona” in 1930, is reflected inquiring about the actors and the meaning sof the practices carried out, warning about dinamization of political relations, power relationships and links between thesespaces. Its enroll in a line of collisions mades ince social Sciences about the gratuitylike a differentiated social field, in wich the charity and charity define a significant universo and suppose social relationships between people who aspire legitimizeits existence insideit. Its believe that foundational process marked a wayof doing  and intervention about the blind population in Salta. For this reconstruction it was resorted historical sources (such as newspapers, books, and documents) and also current members of the institution are interviewed and people who were part of the establishment, inquiring about the trajectory of it. This article its part of a wider investigation that reconstructs a long process of development of the field of social assistance regard ingthe institutionalization of the intervention about blinds and the blindness.
Keywords
: blindness; intervention; social assistance; charity.

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Life sewn between shreds of cloth: work, housing and health in Bolivian immigrants
of the city of São Paulo, Brasil

 Cássio Silveira, Denise Martin y Alejandro Goldberg

 This article examines the phenomenon of young Bolivian workers of both sexes who migrate to the city of São Paulo to improve their living conditions, mainly due to the possibility of finding better work and higher pay than found in their country of origin. Most immigrants are uninformed about the work conditions that they will find at their destination, and sewing is often a viable option for work, since it guarantees housing, food and a salary. Immigrants, and in some cases their children, have several health problems caused by unsanitary and dangerous work conditions present in sewing workshops. A large proportion of immigrants do not access health centres to treat their problems due to a lack of knowledge about services, fear, language barriers and mainly because they cannot interrupt their work day due to the risk of diminishing their income determined by the quantity of garments that they produce.
Key words
:Bolivian immigrants, São Paulo, Textile workshops, Health-illness-care dimensions

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Labor trajectories and inequalities. The case of domestic service employees in Santiago del Estero

Lucas Emanuel Torres


This article aims to analyse the employment trajectories of domestic workers in order to reflect on social and labour inequalities in Santiago del Estero, Argentina.. As women dominate the domestic labor market, it is necessary to analyze it considering the employees' own life experiences and their relationship with their employers.
Through a qualitative study of work trajectories using in-depth interviews to domestic employees, we have the purpose to analyze dimensions such as: starting in the activity, responsabilities in the household, and forms of employment relationship, expectations about them, and varieties of domestic work, seniority and salaries.
The testimonies of these women provide a range of definitions, from shortages and aptitudes in order to start in the activity, the undefined boundaries between tasks, responsibilities and work schedules, the univocity of the employers regarding decision making, in terms of salaries and ways of starting in the activity, the lack of social security, the low expectations of social and labor promotion.
Existing studies in our country about the domestic work industry focus mainly on the city and province of Buenos Aires, places that have been historical receptors of labor force for domestic services. However, our province has been a long-term provider of this labor force, therefore certain situations may differ between places, considering these as historical and cultural settings where lasting relationships are established.
Keywords: Domestic service, labor trajectories, inequalities, labor market

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Christian Democrats and Socialists: labor organization and Sunday law among dependents of Commerce in the city of Buenos Aires (1902-1905)

 

                                                                                                 Sabrina Emilia Asquini


This article explores the origin and development of the Dependents of Commerce´s Union, a very important, numerous and dynamic worker´s guild settled in Buenos Aires city. It was the first attempt to form a guild by the Christian democrats. The early intervention of the Socialist Party is another important element to consider. Because through this experience we can analyze the different tendencies present in the labor movement which were competing between themselves to organize to the workers. Finally, the article shows the multiple fights and claims done bay this trade union to get the Sunday law, between 1902-1905, help us to observe Christian democracy´s strategies in order to recover lost social space by the Catholic Church during XIX century.

Keywords: Dependents of Commerce´s Union; Socialist Party; Christian democracy; Sunday law.

 

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Work and trade union action in global service networks. A view from Argentina (2003-2015)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Andrea Del Bono y María Noel Bulloni

 The article addresses on the question of work in three sectors oriented to the export of services in Argentina: the provision telemarketing services (call centers), audiovisual production services and the software and computer services sector. In each sector, the authors analyses the implications of outsourcing and offshoring firm strategies on working conditions and labour relations, during the period of the Kirchnerist governments (2003-2015) are analyzed.
A qualitative and comparative methodological approach is proposed, which include the combined use of various techniques of registration and analysis of information, centrally, the analysis of documentary sources and semi-structured interviews. The results presented here also draws from the fieldwork carried out within separate sector studies.

In all three sectors
, processes of organizational and labour flexibilization are observed, linked to the current outsourcing and relocation strategies, which cause instability and unpredictability at work, with varying intensity depending on the case. Likewise, the authors observe processes of formalization and improvement of working conditions that are explained taking into account the protective orientation of the labour policy, as well as the diverse responses that workers and trade union organizations articulated at the sectoral level.
The analysis developed is a contribution to the study of the implications off the insertion in global networks of services on labour and the workers, by exploring some of the favourable and unfavourable effects inherent to their own operating logics, but also contemplating the influences exerted by the broader social relations that determine working conditions and labour relations in each particular sector, place and time.

Key words:
work; offshoring; global service networks; trade union action; Argentina

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Minimum wages and collective bargaining in wage determination: interactions between wage policies and
trade union positions
in Argentina and Uruguay

 Adriana Marshall

Focusing in two countries, Argentina and Uruguay, both with a well-established national minimum wage institution and a predominantly industry-wide system of collective bargaining covering most of wage earners, in this article I analyze the relationship between these two coexisting labour institutions during 2003-15 in Argentina and 2005-16 in Uruguay, and how this relationship contributed to shape the evolution of the minimum wage and of private-sector wages. The study suggests that, in both countries, in contrast to a widely held belief, national minimum wage increases do not function as standards of reference for wage bargaining, and that those two institutions of wage determination operated autonomously from each other. In each country the evolution of the national minimum wage differed from that of negotiated wage rates and/or total earnings and, moreover, their comparative trends differed between the two countries. These trends may be explained by the interactions, in the context of prevailing legislation, between state wage policies and trade union attitudes vis-à-vis both the role of the national minimum wage and state limitations to wage increases to be agreed in collective bargaining.
Keywords
: minimum wage, collective bargaining, wage policies, trade unions,wages

 

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Social structure of Argentina, 1976-2011

 Nicolás Sacco


Context: despite accumulated knowledge about social classes in Argentina using multiple approaches and based on different data sources, there are not known studies that start from an aggregate point of view, using population censuses, to allow the continuation of the historical series of analysis of Germani-Torrado. Objective: to complement, continue and update studies of social structure from a global and long-term perspective. Sources: population censuses from 1980 to 2010 and Permanent Household Survey. Method: update of the classification scheme of social classes of Torrado. Results: the information constructed shows significant changes in the class structure under the period of analysis, in the different universes of observation, differentials in both regions and in real cohorts and in the long term. There was a decrease in Middle classes between 1980 and 1991 and its stagnation in 2001 and a continuous decrease in the Working class throughout the period 1980-2001, with a concomitant growth of Marginal workers. With the little evidence available, these trends are reversed by 2010.

Keywords
: social structure; social classes; occupation; economic models.

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From personal to collective. Demands of justice of the Civil Association
Mothers of Pain  the City of Buenos Aires.

Roxana Santamaría

Since the restoration of democracy in 1983 and with greater force in the last two decades, the word impunity has become of current use in Argentina to designate crimes that have not been duly tried and eventually punished by the corresponding judicial instances. From civil society, this situation led to the emergence of various associations of relatives of victims of violent acts, who, through different practices of collective action, installed in the public space their criticisms and protests for what they considered bad developments of institutions formally charged with preserving public safety and providing justice. These are associations that develop their actions in a general context in which legitimacy and trust in public institutions is strongly questioned, a situation that has probably favored and stimulated their initiatives and recognition in the public space. In this text, our object of analysis is the conformation and dynamics of the Civil Association Mothers of Pain of the City of Buenos Aires, placing in the focus of attention the process by which the individual search for justice was transformed into organically organized collective actions.
Keywords
: Mothers of Pain Association - collective action - legal system

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City, Urbanism and Social Change. Theoretical-Conceptual Itinerary of a Socio-Anthropological Journey: The “Chicago School” and Gino Germani

Juan Ignacio Trovero

 The present paper proposes a theoretical-conceptual aproach to the elements with which some authors of the so-called “Chicago School” (Robert Ezra Park, Louis Wirth and Robert Redfield)have thought the urban phenomenon; in order to, then, identify links with the empirical studies carried out by Gino Germani in the late fifties, about the process of urbanization in Argentina. We propose a review of certain key-texts aimed at, first, calibrating the disciplinaryties between sociology and urban anthropology, and then, at contributing elements to reconstruct a scheme for the study of the city. For this, we rely on two hypothesis. The first one holds that between the authors of the “Chicago School” there are not only affinities and divergences, but, above all, mixtures, assemblies, combinations. The second postulates that the echoes of the Chicagoan studies in Germani’sresearch work on Buenos Aires are neither few nor superficial. We understand that thereby we can account for the itinerary of a double journey (interdisciplinary and spatial-temporal), which speaks more of a simultaneity of problems and a myriad of perspectives, techniques and tools for its approach, than of a phenomenon of simple reception or translation of methods and theories.
Key-Words: City; Social Change; Urbanism; Urban Sociology and Anthropology; Chicago School; Gino Germani.

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The use and management of the Universal Child Allowance (AUH): between the "ought to be" and the economic autonomy of women

Ariela Micha

 The Universal Child Allowance (AUH) is a non-contributory benefit implemented in Argentina in 2009, aimed at children (under 18 years old) of workers in the informal sector or unemployed. This policy includes conditionalities in education and health. Although it was not explicitly stated at the outset, among the adults collecting the transfer the percentage of women was very high, reaching a 98% in March 2016 (ANSES, 2016). Currently, as the Decree 614/2013 states, women are explicitly privileged to collect the money.
The designation of women as the recipients of the transfer led to the debate about the role of women who act as the intermediaries between the State and the children, who are the final beneficiaries. Several studies problematize women's responsibility in fulfilling the conditions and hence the naturalization of their role as caregivers. In spite of this maternalism inscribed in the design of the policy, its effects and forms of appropriation by the women are diverse.
This paper intends to contribute to this debate by focusing on the perceptions and experiences of the women who are heads of the AUH (designated as recipients of the transfer) in terms of the use and management of the transfer, and their ambivalent meanings. The potential gain in economic autonomy is explored, through a perspective that emphasizes the social meaning of money. The methodology used is qualitative, within the Metropolitan Area of ​​Buenos Aires (AMBA).

Keywords:
Universal Child Allowance; AMBA; Gender; Economic empowerment; Economic autonomy; Social meaning of money. 

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From political history to gender studies: the historiography on the world of labor in the first half of the 20th century in Buenos Aires

Ludmila Scheinkman

 The aim of this paper is to revisit the historiography on the world of workers in the years prior to the irruption of Peronism in Argentina, to ponder some of the parameters from which they have been looked at, and are studied again today. In order to do this we reconstruct the general outlines of the field's research, from the earliest militant interpretations to flourishment of social history. Secondly, we address the contribution that gender studies have made to the historiography on male and female workers. Finally, we review the current trends in historiography, to propose some lines of analysis or possible bridges to think this field of studies from a social and cultural history revitalized by gender studies, to expand a notion of class that has been rigidly anchored to the productive space.
Key words:
historiography; Workers; labor movement; Left; Gender studies

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Popular and labor wills. The case of Confederation of Workers of the Popular Economy.

 María Antonia Muñoz

 The article analyzes the relationship between the labor policies of different governments and social organizations, with an emphasis on the singular case of the Confederation of Workers of the Popular Economy and Kirchner's governments. The main hypothesis is that the latter focus their logic of action on one that is “popular”. They do not lay on a social and defined identity or a corporate demand. Rather, it constitutes itself as a collective that establishes an antagonistic relationship and one horizon or a universal political project, where the relations of force are crucial in order to understand the results of these. The paper present an analysis of the nature of the Kirchner`s governments from the point of view of labor policies and social inclusion. They will be characterized not only as a work but also as a State-centered model. The resulting contradictions in there are a political opportunity for the emergence of the popular orientation of the CTEP. At the same time, the nature of the organization is presented as a symptom of the weakness of that model. Finally, it will be studied the tensions that emerge after 2017. In spite of the change of government and the regressive social and labor context, the labor organization achieved some successes in regard of their demands. This article uses quantitative and qualitative data.
Key words
: labor policies, Confederation of Workers of the Popular Economy, Trade Unions, popular organization.

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The functional distribution of income in Argentina (1993-2016)

Esteban Ezequiel Maito

In this study, we estimate the national wage share by constructing series of average wages and salaried employment for the total economy, on the basis of particular estimates for formal private and public as well as unregistered employees. Wage share recovered during post-convertibility years, even surpassing the levels of the nineties. On the other hand, we estimated the share and the mass of the operating surplus of the total economy to obtain a complete picture of functional distribution during the last decades. The estimates were made considering the recent revision of INDEC's series of gross domestic product.
Keywords
: income share, wage share, wage, operating Surplus

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The evolution of the textile industry in the central-west region of Mexico: “From the sewing shop to the stalls

 Armida C. García y Octavio  Maza Díaz Cortés

In Mexico, there are certain municipalities and communities that are reknowned for the quality of their textile production. The textile and clothing industries have played a significant role in driving capitalist economic development in the country. Their development has been constant and uninterrupted, with a strong global presence, but they are struggling to maintain their particular characteristics and cultural components. However, there exists data that show economies with a longstanding tradition of textile production move slowly toward patterns where the tradeplays the predominant, determinant role. During the 1980s, the expansion of maquiladora-origin textiles defined a “second economic axis” in regions and communities that suffered a decline in their economic activities (primarily in agrarian sectors). Their “economic domain reorganization” as based upon the traits and competitive advantages found in the local economies of each region, creating patterns of productive specialization, driving employment and the economy. For decades, the market and industry were concentrated in large urban centers. Today, the mass movement of people, products and things from one place to another leads to easier access to a diversity of national and international merchandise, transforming patterns of trade.
Keywords
:Textile industry, maquila, regional trade, trade flows.

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The problem of approximation in "proximity policing":dilemmas of the "pacification" experience of favelas in Rio de Janeiro

 Palloma MENEZES

This article deals with the problem of the approach involved in the so-called "policing of proximity" that was implemented in 38 Pacifying Police Units launched during the last decade in Rio de Janeiro. This study was based on ethnographic research and in-depth interviews with residents, police officers and traffickers from three slums between 2009 and 2015. The first sections of the article deal with past traumas and uncertainties regarding the future of the project, which have fostered mutual mistrust since the beginning of the pacification process and have made it difficult for police and slum dwellers to approach. The next section deals with the "approach tools" that were fleched by UPP officers during "pacification". And the last part of the work deals with the exemplary case of the first commander of the UPP. The central argument of the work is that the actions undertaken by this police officer, to some extent, summed up the "spirit" of the UPPs' project and the dilemmas of "pacification", since they articulated, on the one hand, activities of repression of crimes and of planning of the territory of the favela; and on the other hand, preventive actions, based on the attempts to approach the favela population.

Key words: urban violence, crime, policing, pacification, favelas, Rio de Janeiro

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The political protagonism of tradeunionism and social movements inSouth America

 Esteban IGLESIAS

 The paper intends to analyze the political protagonism of tradeunionism and social movements in Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina, considering them to be witnesses of the South American scenario inso far as they represent different ways of political transformation: institutionalist, rupturist and intermediate. In this sense, it describes the way in which institutional spaces of political dialogue were generated in Brazil and, as a result, the recognition by the State of the main trade union centers, which gaverise to a situation of "unionpluralism", certainly new. In Bolivia the transformations were of greater magnitude, producing nationalizations of companies and, also, the modification of the National Constitution, an open process that altered the political architecture of the State. Finally, in Argentina the political gravitation of tradeunionism and social movements was confined to the institutional arena, being remarkable the collective agreements of work and the offer of the national government to manage governmental programs.

Key words: social movements, politicalparties, unions, State

 

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Questioning the authority. An analysis of the public claims of the police family in the province of Buenos Aires and the City of Buenos Aires

Santiago Galar

The objective of the work is to characterize the participants, the forms and contents involved in the claims produced in the public space by actors linked to police institutions, particularly the Federal Police with operations in the City of Buenos Aires and Buenos Aires Provincial Police. For these purposes, we carry out in-depth interviews with members of the so-called “police family” who usually raise complaints in the public space, we participated in protests called by these actors and we reconstructed public conflicts through the completion of an exhaustive graphic press registry. In the exercise of claiming in the public space tensions arising from a double belonging of the actors are visible, as members of a democratic society that grants rights to its citizens and as members of a hierarchical institution that has inequalities. Including demands for rights according to the process of democratization experienced by society as a whole, the claim constitutes for the actors a moment of questioning the limits imposed by the institution, although it does not necessarily express a demand for “demilitarizing” the police.

Key Words: collective action, police, public space, protest, activism

 

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 Whatis a police? a study on the representations of police work

 José Garriga Zucal y Elea Maglia

Wepropose in this article ananalysis of the police representations on their work tasks. As a result of an ethnographic work - at the Cadet School of the Argentine Federal Police – we discovered that three dimensions of police work always come up: sacrifice, vocation and Police state. These milestones of self-representation allow us to reflecton police work through two different, butre lated, paths. On the onehand, we are interested in accounting for the continuities and ruptures of representations of policework to other professions. On the other hand, we are interested in accounting for the valuation strategies of police work - moral operations – that allow police officers to rank their tasks and make police work a non-work.

Key words: police, sacrifice, vocation, police state

 

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Qualitative analysis of the political-electoral task from the experiences of the polices of a police station in Asunción, Paraguay

 Carlos Peris Castiglioni

 Whenexamining thee xercise of the Paraguayan National Police, most of the speeches focused on criticizing the institution under a passive execution logic. It has been projected to officers who only limited themselves to followorders, those were no more than a service tool of the power of duty. The present study pointedoutth at this perspective is deficient, proposing that, in addition to the directives of the superiors, the experiences, concepts and ideas of the agents would also come in to play. Thus, it was proposed to demonstrate that the policing would be composed of the daily life of each of its members. For this purpose, the chosen scenario has been a commissioner of the City of Asunción-Paraguay, during the elections of the Republican National Association. The work was carried out in November of 2017 where, following the qualitative method of in-depth interviews, they inquired in to their perceptions in the political and, as you are, they configured a characteristic type of performance. Asking about their experiences, definitions, motivations and expectations, there search was based on two experiences: one established from the impressions of the police chief and another, based on an investigation together with two mid-level police officers. The main conclusion obtained was that depending on the position occupied in the ranks, the political was lived in various ways, one that marked a type of action beyond the demands or commissions of the command structure.

Key words: politics, Paraguay, pólice, labor, election

 

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The local government of public security. The Unidades de Policía de Prevención Local of two cities located in the Gran Buenos Aires

 

Mariana Da Silva Lorenz y Pugliese Ornela

 In the present work we intend to investigate some aspects related to the emergence of the Unidades de Policía de Prevención Local (UPPL). The regulations that create these security forces establish general criteria for their homogeneous application through out the territory of the Provincia de Buenos Aires but also enable the different districts to delineate particular initiatives. The importance of the role of the local government in this security policy allows that it acquires unique characteristics in each territory. For this reasonitis interesting to be able to compare different UPPL and analyze what their similarities and differences are, see how in each districtthe general guidelines are applied and the particular initiatives are deployed. Here we will focus on some similarities that we find a mong the UPPL of two cities of Greater Buenos Aires in which we carried out fieldwork. In both locations we find that the police officers mark the same elements as characteristic of the irwork: they are a law enforcement agency for prevention and proximity, their job is permanent, islearnt in the practice, there are differences between the tasks done in the streets and those more administrative done in the police station and, finally, a similar way of under standing the relation with their fire arms. Also an other thing tha tallthe UPPL have in commonis that they don'thave a rigid and vertical hierarchical system. The considerations set forth in this article are the product of a field work that consisted of interviews with officers and chiefs of the UPPL as well as the authorities of the security area of the two cities. We also read and analyzed the laws that regulate this institutions, as well as documents and official communications of the local governments of bothtowns.

Key words: unidades de policía de prevención local, local governments, police, politics

 

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City, security and territory: structuring trends in San Luis (2004-2017)

Emilio Seveso

The present work proposes to describe and characterize the security policies applied in the province of San Luis (Argentina) during the last years. Specifically, it refers to the series of strategies that emerged between 2004 and 2017, interpreted through local productive changes, the transformations of urban life and the modes of interaction. In this way, it tries to establish an interpretative link between these processes, the modalities of territorial regulation and the structuring conditions of the cities. Beyond the specificity of the case investigated, the importance of the study lies in problematizing a dimension as relevant as "security" from a relational point of view that overflows to the phenomenon as a closed field. It incorporates social and urban dimensions, practices and sensitivities, that reveal continuities with other Latin American cities of medium scale; especially, referring to new habitat conditions and living experiences, structured around economic, political and cultural changes.

Key words:security, city, territory, San Luis, police
 

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Policeworkpolitization in Buenos Aires. Gendarmes and local policefacingproximitypolicing

Sabina Frederic

In Buenos Aires since 2003, police and gendarmes increased geometrically. Many of these uniformed people were deployed in neighborhoods, towns and commercial area sunder a new policy: proximity policing. This was a means of redistribution the expanding public force, both in Brazil with the creation of the Pacification Police Units justified in a "community police" model (Menezes, 2014) and in the world, promotingco-production of patrolling between uniformed and neighbors (Durao, 2012). Our ethnographic research with Local Police and Gendarmes, involved in this policy, shows how police work was politicized due to the historical moral value of the political links forged in the approach of state agents to the neighborhood community and its neighbors (Frederic, 2017); and by the inscription of the uniformed in pre-existing socio-political plots. This policy introduced the uniformed in the exchange of services, support and recognition, before just reserved to officials, leaders/militants. In addition to conflicts in driving, difficulties of adaptation, or internal discrimination, which went through its protagonists, the research shows the ambivalence that the politicization of police work imprints both on a military or civilian force.

Key words: Police work, morality, politicization, militarization, ethnographic comparison

 

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Women workers in the printing industry during sixties and seventies: union participation, contentious agency and genre discourses


 Pablo GHIGLIANI

The paper is based upon the following proposition: the relations of economic exploitation are simultaneously complex and changing relations of domination and subordination, among and within classes. With this paradigm as intellectual horizon, the paper studies the growing mobilization process of female workers of the printing industry between 1966 and 1976. It is organized in three parts: a) a quantitative study of the evolution of the presence of women in the headquarters of the la Federación Gráfica Bonaerense, the competing electoral lists and the shop-floor committees between 1966 y 1975; b) the quantitative and qualitative study of the women agency in the labor conflicts of the period; and c) a qualitative analysis of how the female is discursively treated by the trade-union magazine.

 Key words: Federación Gráfica Bonaerense, printing industry, working class, trade-unionism, gender

 

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The role of educational degree in the recruitment and internationalization of managerial elites in Uruguay: between cultural openness and social closure?
 
 

Miguel SERNA

 
What is the role of educational degree the recruitment and trajectories of senior executives of large companies? How does it relate to the strategies of internationalization of business elites?, What specific and common features can be found in business executives of Uruguay in Latin American comparative perspective?
The article aims to analyze the role of educational degree in the recruitment of managerial elites by a sociological perspective. The paper focuses on careers of executives of corporate companies in. Uruguay compared with several Latin American countries in recent decades. The paper presents advances in a study of the educational background of senior executives of the largest companies in Uruguay based on biographical trajectory analysis.
It is based on a double interpretation found in the specific literature, on the one hand the increasing incidence of cultural capital and the internationalization of educational degree and competences for management careers. On the other hand, the processes of internationalization of companies and management training do not replace the traditional mechanisms of selection of managerial cadres of companies related to social capital - trust relations at the top - and their local territorial roots.
The analysis of the Uruguayan case suggests that it is a type of managerial elite that combines a plural recruitment in the access with progressive educational and social closure mechanisms which contribute to the social cohesion of the ruling groups.
 
Keywords: managerial elites, cultural capital, business recruitment

 

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Understanding contemporary identities from Foucault approaches


Oscar Martin ROSERO SARASTY


The article upholds identity conception as a matter of articulation between forms and positions that are defined from the view of institutionalities for those subjects and practices of relation that exist whith himself  and determine particular shapes of self-constitution of their subjectivity.

Aproaches from Stuart Hall and Michelle Foucault regarding the double condition of subjection/subjectivation from which subjectivities and subjetcs are constructed, are used as foundation. This perspective tries to overcome essentialist visions, of coherence and stability to considerer identities as a complex, dispersed framework linked to the historical conditions and contexts in which they are built; issue that turns out to be of interest to understand identities in the context of varied and volatile conditions of contemporany life.


Keywords
: identity, subject, subjection, subjectivation.

 

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Kultur or race. A historical comparison of the thought between Spengler and Hitler

 Pablo Ramón CABRERA

 

From 1850 until the First World War, therise and splendor of bourgeois mentality is given.
After the "Great War", this is quantitatively expanded thanks to therise of themasses, but converged in a qualitative crisis, questioning many of its foundations. From this context, the political crisis of bourgeois mentality that combined liberalism, republicanism and democracy against the onslaught of two ideologies that in turncollide with each other, fascism and communism occurs.
Noting the German reactionary modernism, placingit in its historical context, try to analyze the assumptions and ideological positions of two contrasting them concerning this current: Oswald Spengler and Adolf Hitler
According to Spengler his era is that of The Decline of the West, far from the masses, the cities, thes cientific-rationalinanimate. To which opposes the option of redeeming the heroic war, the sensitivity of German Kultur, the Prussian socialism and anoutlet through a Caesar.
Then observe the work of the self-proclaimed Führer, Mein Kampf, analyzing their conceptual network of political thought, the founding myths of Nazism, hiscriticism of parliamentary democratic institutions and theory that lead to a praxis: the biologist racism and "struggleraces".

 

Key words: Germany, interwar, Spengler, Hitler, crisis, Kultur, Zivilisation, race

 

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Between deskilling, immaterial labour and intellectualization, where does the working classgo?

 Facundo LASTRA


The aim of this article is to analyse the transformations of the working class under capitalism, by relating the tendencies towards the deskilling of workforce, the emergence of immaterial labour, and the intellectualization of a part of the working class. With this purpose, were view the contributions by Marx to these questions and the interpretations of his writings made by Harry Braverman and posworkerism. Firstly, the chapters from Capital dedicated to the study of cooperation, manufacture and the modern industry are reviewed. Then, the analysis by Braverman is discussed, pointing out some of the limits of his ‘deskilling thesis’ and identify ing the lines of continuity between the ideas of this author and the ones from Capital. Additionally, the fragment on machines from the Grundrisse is reviewed, emphasizing the contradictions of this fragment in comparison to Capital and Braverman’s theses. The interpretation of the Grundrisse made by the posworkerismis analysed, highlighting the continuity between posworker ist theory and Marx’s ideas. Finally, this article puts forward an interpretation of the two writings by Marx studied in this text. We argue that it is necessary to interpret both Capital and the Grundrisse together, in order to grasp the trends of differentiation and universalization, which coexist with in the working class.

Key words: Working class, posworkerism, deskilling, Braverman, economic,sociology

 

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The suburb, theState administration and the mobilizations. The experience of Movimiento Evita, in a municipality of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (2004-2015)

 Francisco LONGA

This paper analyzes the experience of a contemporary social movement in Argentina, from the 'dilemma' raised by the academic literature about the limits and potential of integrating the State by social movements. For this, I focused on the Movimiento Evita, formed in 2004, that after a political accumulation exclusively from outside the State institutions happened to integrate its militants to the State structure from its adherence to the presidential governments of Nestor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández that took place in Argentina between 2003 and 2015. This study focuses on the relationships built by the movement from the outside and from the inside of State institutions, in the municipality of San Fernando, in the north suburbs of Buenos Aires province. The article aims to transcend the binary division between inside and outside the State, to show the mixturated dynamics the movement displayed in the studied municipality, which contemplated negotiations, integrations and confrontations with the municipal State structure, from the adherence or the opposition respect of the different governments who occupied it. 

Key words: Social Movements, State, Local Perspective, Argentina

  

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Social protest and labor conflicts. The case of theworkersmovement of Gran La Plata 1969-1972

 Agustín NAVA

This article aims to contribute to the study of the characteristics  and dynamics presented by the movement of social protest and political radicalization that occurred in Argentina during the sixties and seventies. Focusing our attention on a particular kind of struggles that developed: those made by the working class in the period between 1969-1972, in the region of La Plata,Berisso and Ensenada, studying them through a methodology based primarily on the quantitative method. . The purpose of this paper is to present through a quantitative analysis, the general map of labor conflicts in the Gran La Plata, with the objective of establishing the main patterns, trends and characteristics of the struggles of the labor movement in the period 1969-1972. We have divided this paper into two sections. In the first of them a panorama of the labor conflict is presented in the most general sense we have used. At this point, the analysis is not limited to only one of the manifestations of conflictivity (strikes), that although they are central, do not exhaust themselves the complexity of union and political action of the working class. In the last section, however, we will deal specifically with the dynamics of strike activity of the regional labor movement, trying to establish the factors relevant to understand their movements and features.

Key words: social protest, labor conflicts, quantitative analysis, Gran La Play


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Partial reinstitutionalization in the post-convertibility employment regime: employment, wages and unions in the soybean chain


Regina VIDOSA


From a regulationist perspective, this investigation analyzes the way in which the wage form the post-convertibility accumulation regime materializes in the main links of the soybean-oilseed complex. Specifically, sectoral dynamics stand out over those of the overall economy, in terms of the main indicators of the labor market -employment, type of employment, salary-. Furthermore, the correspondence or not between the dynamics of the different links of the chain and the national scale is associated to the particularities observed in the labor institutions in which they are framed. For the development of such objectives, the work analyzes secondary sources of academic, journalistic and normative origin -of diverse state orders-. Accordingly, the analysis results in a heterogeneous dynamic between the different links of the chain. The partial re-institutionalization of the labor market, shaped by Argentina’s new employment regime of 2003, shows certain influence in the labor indicators of the industrial links of the soybean complex. On the contrary, the agricultural sector denotes a relative autonomy, whereas the level of employment, its quality, and the recomposition of wages manifest a very uneven marginal path, regarding the overall economy. Likewise, this paper exposes that these so dissimilar paths could be linked, among other aspects, to the differences observed in working conditions, which derive from sectoral negotiations between the parties involved: the State, the private business sector, and the workers, represented by their unions.

 

Key words: soybean chain, labor market, labor unions

 

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“Subjects” to organization: associative and political practices in rural development in Jujuy and Formosa, Argentina.


Carlos COWAN ROS y Matías BERGER


To promote organization between subaltern rural population is a constant aim in theories and strategies of argentinian rural development agencies and NGOs. In this paper, we reflect about associative and political practices produced as result of relationships between subaltern rural population and rural development agents framed in several development projects since 1990 decade to recent days. Ethnographic method and case study strategy were used to described two social networks, one located in Jujuy and the other in Formosa. Through comparision we observed regularities and singularities of each case and contribute in methodological aspects to organization process studies. Main conclusions point that associative ways promoted by development agents, far from remain autonomous and uncontamined, they overlap on preexisting structures and, in struggle processes, reconfigure them as an effect of relationships based on different logics, representations, life paths and organizational ways.

Key words: social networks, social mediation, peasants, public policies, rural development.

 

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Labour precarization in the State and degradation of labour power: analysis in workers linked to the implementation of social policies

 Fiorella CADEMARTORI


The following essay shares reflections about the mercantilization relationship that linked the State with workers related to social policies implementation trough the analysis of work process. As empiric input for the analysis, is it retrieve the trends that mould the work`s process of Social Workers of Buenos Aires, in the period subsequent to the contrareforms toward the Argentinian State in the `90 decade. As part of the trends to consolidate the precarious labour conditions, is it affirm that, based on this the State advance in control and disciplinant strategies of greater specialization and subtlety manage to workers above its orbit. Is it emphasize in this essay, what is concerning to the degradation of labour power as disciplinant labour mechanism.

Keywords:State, Social workers,Work process,Degradation of labour power, Control and labour disciplining.

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Social Work’sfeminization: implications for today’s professional identity and profile construction in students and teachers from the University of Buenos Aires University

Julieta NEBRA

The aims of this article are both to describe the feminization processin the academic discipline of Social Work at University of Buenos Aires throughout its history, and to explore this process’ implications for today’s professional identity and profile construction.

To achieve this, quantitative data from census and electoral registers have been analyzed and have enable a comparative gender-perspective study of the student’s population since this training course’s origins until now. At the same time, considering that the process of feminization implies not only women majority, but also stereotyped assumptions and practices, gender distribution of teachers’ posts have been examined.

Bearing in mind that the construction of a profession and of a professional profile is achieved within the imaginary and the representations of the people who are part of the field, these quantitative data have been coordinated with a qualitative approximant from analysis of Social Work students and teachers’ discourse of their own interpretation of the profession’s profile.  Semi-structured interviews and self-managed surveys to Social Work students and teachers have been carried out. Finally, this work shows a historic continuity in the professional feminization process with an increasing masculinization of the teachers’ hierarchy within the course itself.

Keywords: Social Work, feminization, history, imaginary.

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Time and income poverty in Argentina


Carla ARÉVALO


This study incorporates a temporal dimension into poverty measurement using the LIMTIP methodology on data from the Unpaid Work and Time Use Survey collected by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INDEC) in 2013. This innovation allows identifying both people with insufficient income to achieve a minimum level of well-being, as well as those with long working hours and / or with a high intensity of domestic work that affects their well-being. It is a methodology that aims to generate useful results for orientating courses of action that harmonize labor market, demographic structure of households and social policies with a gender perspective. Among the most important findings we can mention that LIMTIP affects men and women at very similar levels, In addition, the gender of the household head is not a determinant of poverty LIMTIP. Therefore, the evidence suggests that poverty that affects women or households led by them has different drivers beyond their gender.

Keywords: Time use; Poverty; Gender; Well-being.

 

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“The transfer of value and human degradation in the companies of the automotive cluster from México”

Carlos Alberto JIMÉNEZ BANDALA

Andrés de Jesús CONTRERAS ÁLVAREZ

 

This paper aims to explain the processes of labor precarization as a sine qua non condition of neoliberal phase that allows companies with low organic composition of capital to generate enough value to transfer it to companies with high organic composition. Performs from the analysis of the labor conditions of the operating workers of a supplier company in an Automotive Cluster from Mexico. A qualitative methodology demonstrates that labor conditions are not only precarious but also inhuman, they degrade the work content and all the attributes of the subject, take it to the extreme point of reification in such a way that it is denied both the physiological and biological characteristics.

Key Words: Labor Precarity, Outsourcing, Participatory-Action Research, Automotive Industry.

 

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Implications of automated processes in customer service and teller positions in the banking industry

 

Alicia BALLESTEROS CARDONA

Tania GARCÍA RAMOS

 The purpose of this article is to critically examine recent quantitative and qualitative research addressing the advantages and disadvantages of the technological transformations in banking transactions. On one side, these have speed-up transactions and minimize costs for banks. On the other hand, have produced serious psico-social implications in the customer service experience, including the reduction of teller positions. Different factors influencing customer perceptions and satisfaction are presented, on what is defined as “quality of service”. At the end, the importance of establishing a balance between electronic services and face to face interaction is emphasized. This includes actions that address the precariousness of the teller position. 

Key words: Automation, Banking Industry; Customer Service; Critical Analysis
 

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Training of workers and dispute of knowledge in large corporations of the automotive and steel sector: the management pedagogy

 Claudia FIGARI

This article analyzes the concretization of management prescriptions and their implications in the formation of the workers’ subjectivities in subsidiaries of large automotive and steel companies located in Argentina. The pedagogy of management takes center stage in order to model a subject that adheres to the values ​​of collaboration-with the company- and of corporate citizenship.
In the factory scenario the concretization of the global / global framework is promoted from the articulations between the corporate pedagogical agency and the so-called labor competencies. These competences, which express corporate knowledge, interact in the everyday work with the technical expertise that workers have on a daily basis in providing cooperation. Management employs complex real-time "capture" devices for such expertise. This operation enables the enrichment and contributes to consolidate the corporate standardizing andcertifying apparatus.

The article emphasizes research findings made in large corporations in the last decade.A qualitative strategy has been used, and observations, visits to plants, individual and group interviews with workers and union delegates have been made. We have produced an important corpus made up of secondary sources, for example sustainability reports produced by the companies (at corporation and subsidiaries levels), collective labor agreements, various materials used for the training of workers.

Keywords:
Corporations, Hegemony, Corporate pedagogical agency, Knowledge, Subjectivity, Global / local map

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"Very Noble and Loyal" city of Santiago del Estero. The "mother of cities" and the IV Centenary of its foundation

César Daniel GÓMEZ y José Vicente VEZZOSI


Several publications appeared in the late 1940s, revived the debate about the founder and date of founding of Santiago del Estero city. In the figures of Alfredo Gargaro, Junta de Estudios Históricos de Santiago del Estero president, and of Fray Mercedario Eudoxio de Jesús Palacio, was incarnated aguirrista (who maintained that the foundation was made by Francisco de Aguirre in 1553) and pradist (argued that Nuñez del Prado had been the founder in 1550) thesis respectively.In 1952 the province government, under command of the Peronist Francisco Javier González, entrusted to Academia Nacional de Historia the task to dictate about it. The failure favored the position promoted by Gargaro, and enabled the institutionalization aguirrista discourse and celebrations commemorating the IV Centennial in 1953 that were attended by President Perón. This paper analyzes the process of consecration of a specific report of the foundation that is framed in the enunciation of a discourse on identity in a moment of consolidation of Peronism in the province, with the aim of considering the use and the meaning that the different actors involved gave to these speeches, focusing on the one that was built from the government of the province. It is maintained that beyond the identification of the date and the founder with some particular current, the celebratory framework emerges as a conjuncture that would have allowed a picture of mutual legitimation between the political and the historical.

Keywords:
Santiago del Estero fundation, identity discourses, peronismo

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The biographical studies of the unitarian party before and after Caseros
A prosopographical approach

Ignacio ZUBIZARRETA

 

The present work aims to reflect on the phenomenon of Unitarianism according to the results of a prosopographic study. Through it, we seek to make an analysis that allows to understand the development of the faction through time and bearing in mind several features such as the origin of its members, their occupation, destiny of exile during Rosas period and their political positions after Caseros. Prosopographic approaches have served to confirm more clearly some general claims of historiography, but also to question old, firmly established beliefs. In this way, we will try to indicate to what extent the tools of prosopography have served us in both cases. In turn, our working hypothesis lies in demonstrating that nineteenth-century factions function and cohere for two reasons: common unity of purpose and a relatively stable set of actors. When one or both variables cease to be operative, we can consider that the faction ceases to exist, as will happen with Unitarianism after Caseros. Finally, in the conclusion, we return to the main ideas of the writing and incorporate an analysis on the historiographical issue linked to the general problematic of nineteenth-century factionalism in Latin America.

Keywords: prosopography, Unitarianism, factionalism, political history, 19th century

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Horizontal networks and workers' democracy: unification of squad of clasistas delegates in Cordoba, 1973-1974

María Laura ORTIZ


This paper is part of a doctoral research in history, which was aimed to research the emergence of clasista unionism in historical perspective, analyzing its processes of change and continuity in the period 1969-1976 in Cordoba. In this particular article, we will analyze the forms of organization of clasistas rank and file associations, which took various forms according to the historical periods and the horizons of possibility. Specifically, attention can be paid to those constituent features that differentiated them from other traditional trade union models. We start from the hypothesis that clasistas rank and file associations were governed by a horizontal form of organization, commonly referred to as "union democratization". Here we will address the experience of unification of a Squad of clasistas Delegates of the main mechanical and metallurgical factories of Cordoba: Renault and subsidiaries, FIAT and Perkins. All of them were in different situations and with different possibilities, but with the common objective of sustaining the organization of clasistas workers.

Keywords:
clasismo, unions, rank and file associations, Córdoba.

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Defining policing profession

Mariana LORENZ

This paper seeks to investigate the representations that the members of the Policía Federal Argentina (PFA) build about their work. Policeman, in general, think their task is risky, permanent and vocational. To this we have to add some formal elements included on their regulation and aspects of the institutional organization: unlike any other worker, they must observe their rights, obligations and prohibitions always; also, they have a salary during the training period. In addition, through its institutional speeches, the PFA urges its members to sacrifice for a higher cause and defend the common good rather than their own interests. All these aspects collaborate so that officials understand their task as a service, mission or status differentiating it from any other.
Keywords:
Work, Policía Federal Argentina, Risk, Vocation, Service, Mission

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Home, Family and Social Science: traces of Frédéric Le Play in Argentina between centuries

Paula Lucía AGUILAR

The article systematizes a set of quotations to the works of Frédéric Le Play (1806-1882) in between XIXth and XXth centuries and analyzes them in relation to the specific forms adopted by the debate on the so-called social question in Argentina. The text has four sections. First, a semblance of the work and trajectory of Frédéric Le Play, reviewing the most usual forms in which his work was included in the historical account of Sociology. Second, it considers the references to Le Play and his work in Argentina in the last decades of the nineteenth century within the discussion between liberalism and Catholicism. Third, the article highlights the elements of his perspective considered at the beginning of the XXth century for the scientific study on the living conditions for workers and their families. Finally, we resume some elements useful to study the articulation between the social sciences, the home and the social question.
Keywords:
Frédéric Le Play, Social Question, Sociology, Home, Family

 

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Recovered factories: the senses of everyday work organization


Nicolás DZEMBROWSKI

Recovery processes of companies for their workers in Argentina are presented as a spread in the number of cases and the geographical location as well as the breadth of economic sectors in which developing phenomenon. The beginnings of this form of association are found in the late nineties, but with greater intensity in early 2000. Moreover, there are historic precedents in our country about the existence of processes in which workers took some kind of participation in production management.
In this paper I will analyze the way / the workers / is recovered factories and companies will bring to their everyday work practices. Thus, the aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships of production starting configured recovery, defined as the ways in which workers are positioned relative to its peers and work. One of the epidermal issues of this process on the speech expressed as the dilemma of not wanting to be employed but also become employers. This statement has numerous and varied connotations that are observed to analyze the configuration of production processes and decision-making that characterizes these experiences. The hypothesis guiding this work is that this configuration is not merely a way of doing it is shaping the way-of-being-in-the-world that these workers acquire when passing through the experience of this specific type of association.

Keywords:
workers cooperatives, recovered factories, associativity for work

 

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Public policies to family farm in Argentina during the period 1990-2015.
New and known items on the agenda for discussion

Lisandro FERNÁNDEZ


The aim of this paper is to analyze the main features of Public Policies for family farm on two different historical-political contexts of Argentina. Centrally, research covers the period of 1990-2015. For the accomplishment of this study we rely on documentary sources, qualified informants and a bibliographical analysis.
The research distinguishes two phases. The first -during the 90s- is characterized by deregulation of agricultural state institutions, in which a set of programs designed to offset the increase in rural poverty were implemented. In a second phase, which began with the devaluation of 2002, and particularly after the 2008 agrarian conflict, Public Policies enabled greater degree of institutional integration and visibility of family farm, together with changes in the objectives and instruments of programs destined to it. The analysis of the overall process allows observing changes and continuity of public policy for the sector.
Keywords
: agricultural policies, rural development programs, family farm.

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Partners in front of agribusiness. The integration of Avellaneda’s Agricultural Union (AAU) and the Argentinian Cooperatives Association (ACA) (1990-2010).

José Martín BAGENETA

The aim of this paper is to describe, analyze and interpret the institutional relationship that maintains the Avellaneda’s Agricultural Union (UAA) with its second-level organization, the Argentinian CooperativesAssociation (ACA) in relation withthe changes generated by agribusiness in the period of expansion on the marginal region of Great Argentinian Chaco (GChA)(1990-2010). The concepts of agribusiness territory, integration, autonomy and complementarity are articulated to study what happened. The hypothesis is that the integration of cooperative entities results a profitable organizational form for each organization in front ofthe territory of agribusiness. Once analyzed the trajectory of each organization, the historicity of the relationship is studied using qualitative historical documents, statistics and interviews. The purpose is to advance into the complexities of integration. A milestone of this solidarity with agri-business is in 2005 the installation of Puerto Vilelas (Chaco) and the subsequent links with their particular strategies and meeting points.
Key words:
cooperative integration, Argentinian Cooperatives Association, Avellaneda’s Agricultural Union, Agribusiness.

 

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An approach to labor trajectories of mechanical and manual workers in cotton harvest. Chaco, Argentina.

Germán ROSATI

 
This paper asks about the place of waged workers in the agrarian social structure. The case of cotton harvesters in Chaco state is studied. Particularly, it analyzes manual and mechanical worker´s labor trajectories (stability, sector of activity, qualification, etc. of job positions). These trajectories constitute an indicator of the worker´s function in social structure, as they allow an approach to the different forms of labor market competition. The main empirical source is a set of interviews to workers in which labor histories are reconstructed.
Key words: labor trajectories, Chaco, cotton

 

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The political conceptions of the constitutional reform of 1949: the visions of Peronism and the Unión Cívica Radical

                                                                                                             Sabrina AJMECHET



The 1949 constitution, approved under Juan Domingo Perón’s first presidency, maintained the principles of representative government: it did not introduce corporatist principles of representation or modify 
he tripartite division of powers. Nevertheless, it laid the dogmatic bases and dealt with the institutional articulation of a type of government different from that imagined in 1853. 
Under the premise that it was necessary to overcome the deficiencies of the representative-liberal regime, the Peronist goverment proposed a constitutional design based on an organicist visión of politics. 
This redefinition produced substantial modifications both in the idea of ​​representation and in the very definition of democracy. From the analysis of the positions expresed during the debate of the Constitutional 
Reform by the Peronists’ and Radicals’ legislators we will analize some basic political conceptions: How did they imagine political representation? How did they define democracy? 
How did they define the characteristics of a good goverment? 
Key Words: Argentinian Political History, Peronism, Constitutional Reforms, Politica Concepts

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Supporting this project. An ethnographic study on union-State relations.

 Sandra WOLANSKI

In this paper I present an analysis on union-State relations, through an ethnographic study of FOETRA, the main telecommunications union in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Following proposals in Political Anthropology that discuss the reification of the State, I describe interactions between union activists/leaders and State representatives/agencies, and their meanings, to show the complexity of relations that could be simplified as heteronomous, or pro-government. I analyze the activists' perspective on union-State relations as a joint construction of a national project, describing its complexity in the everyday practice of union activists and in a long-term perspective that they take into account. Finally, I intend to contribute to an anthroplogical analysis of the State as a process in the making, showing the active part workers play in State construction.
Keywords:
Trade Unions, State, Ethnography, Kirchnerismo

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Governmentality, work and youth. Analysis proposal for a renewed look on youth labor inclusion and its devices.

María Gabriela BRANDÁN ZEHNDER


During the course of this article we seek to account the major changes occurred at labor that have been imported, among other issues, a radical transformation in the manner that work and even its subjects are governed. Even more, we consider that the new ways of govern work implies the development of specific devices, like public policies and programs, in which we specifically will repair at those that  are oriented to young people. We understand that in the national context, the emergence of youth employment issues as a central topic in government agendas, and also in the research agenda of the country, has gained a major place in the recent years. In order to introduce a new key of analysis to understand this phenomenon, we present the perspective of governmentality as a grid of intelligibility proper to approach the interpretation in the field of labor, as it emerges as the predominant form of exercise power over subjects under the neoliberal rationality.

Key words:
governmentality, public policies, youth, labor, subjectivity.

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Labor struggle, dynamic of strikes and forms of worker organization in the wood industry of Buenos Aires city, 1916-1921

 Walter L. KOPPMANN

The aim of this paper is to analyze the different forms of labor struggle that the woodworkers unions adopted between 1916, which is approximately the year in which the economic crisis of 1913 in Argentina started to reverse, and 1921, the year in which the general strike and the protest cycle ended. In between those years, several strikes and demonstrations took place in this country. In order to achieve this objective, we are going to make a brief review of the different struggles that occurred during this period of time. We are going to try to determine the way in which the production process influenced the morphology of the union body. In addition we are going to analyze the central role of the left currents in the making of the working class.
The particular study of the wood industry allowed us to perceive some phenomena that usually go unnoticed. In the last part of this article we are going to investigate the importance of the jewish community in this industry. Last, we will summarize some conclusions. 

Keywords:
woodworkers, protest cycle, labor struggle, production process, union body, lefts

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Youth militances in the 1980s: approaches to youth participation in the argentine democratic transition

 Pablo VOMMARO y Alejandro Cozachcow


The article presents an approach to the study of the forms of youth activism during the democratic transition in Argentina between 1981 and 1987. We propose that the study of this period is central to understanding the peculiarities and some of the common features that acquires youth mobilization in later years. Thus, when approaching forms of youth participation in these years they are also identified some characteristics that acquire links between youths and policies in the nineties and also, with more visibility, after 2001. A reconstruction work on militancy and youth participation during 1981 and 1987 is done on a review of the literature, focusing on two dimensions. The first one, seeks to identify the main characteristics of youth participation between 1981-1987, according to the points made in the scientific works produced in those years and in more recent analysis. Second, we propose some analytical lines that allow an approach to the knowledge on the major milestones of youth participation in the period, and also problematize the production made.
Keywords: Youths, Politics, Militancy, Participation, Democracy, Transition

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Insult and Subjetivity. The constitution of youth subjectivities in the suburban neighborhoods of Misiones.

 

 María Luz ROA

 

 

 

The article investigates the constitution of stigmatized subjectivities in young yerba mate harvesters (tareferos) who reside in peri-urban neighborhoods of the cities of Oberá and Montecarlo (Misiones province, Argentina). It focuses on the existential particularities of being in a investive world, analyzing the trajectories of young people in their interaction with the neighborhood, school, family and yerbal. To carry out these objetives, we analyse data constructed in eight ethnographic fieldworks in cities and yerbales of Oberá and Montecarlo between 2008 and 2013. It is argued as a hypothesis that children and young people are socialized traumatically in a cultural world organized around a class racialization relations in which there is a conjugated stigmatization of 1) mestizo and por population, 2) tarefa aesthetic styles, and 3) suburban neighborhoods. Thus, during the childhood they resist to identified as black=tareferos, Yaré=dangerous neighbors, creating an contradictory interior home where it is assumed the tarefero being.
Key words
: subjectivity, tarefa, rural youth, stigmatization, agricultural workers.

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The Metal Workers Union during the first Peronism:institutional development and organizational dynamics

José MARCILESE

This work intends to study the operation of the Unión ObreraMetalúrgica (UOM) during the first Peronism. An entity that during the 1945-1955 period established itself as a complex union and national projection , by applying the model union branch of production . In that sense, this study  will be interested in inquiring about the internal dynamics of the UOM, in order to understand the sense of internal relations, the links between the various stages of the organization and how the organization relates to Peronism.
Key words:
Peronism, workers, Unión Metal Workers

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 Disability policy and 'paradigm shift? Reflection from the case of persons with physical impairments begging on the north of Chile

Carolina FERRANTE

From a qualitative research conducted in Region II of Chile -located in the north of the country on disability policies and practices begging for people with physical impairments, this article discusses the diagnosis that affirms the existence of a paradigm shift in the consecrating the subject of a human rights approach. Far from this postulate, the recovery of view of key actors of disability, people with impairments begging and citizens who give them (or not) alms, evidence exclusion processes and in / social validation produced by an ambivalent state, that, in the context of neoliberal social relations, promotes a symbolic market of personal medical tragedy. In the same -from pity / almsgiving exchange identifications and supportability mechanisms that reproduce the domination of people with impairments and an unequal society occur.
Keywords:
alms, disability policies, a paradigm change personal medical tragedy.

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Bringing justice to international trade? An introduction to the Fair Trade initiative

Juan Ignacio STARICCO y María Ayelén NARANJO

Both, the growth experienced by the Fair Trade sector in the last years and the expectations of its further expansion, make of this system a tempting alternative for small producer organization and firms in order to access international trade. Different firms and organizations have been producing under Fair Trade’s standards for more than 10 years in Argentina; however, local academic production has still not made an attempt to systematically analyze this phenomenon. The goal of this article, hence, is to offer an introduction to Fair Trade, explaining its historical origins, working logic and main tools. In order to substantiate this presentation, we resort to the case of the Argentinean wine industry.
Keywords
: Fair Trade, certifications, wine industry

 

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Work and health conditions of vegetable planters from a Brazilian municipality

 Stênio Trevisan Manzoli
Aparecida Mari Iguti

Inês Monteiro

This exploratory study aimed to identify the profile, lifestyle and health and working conditions of workers from a small establishment/ producer property in a municipality of Minas Gerais - Brazil, with 53 workers, and the questionnaire - Questionário de dados sociodemográficos, estilo de vida e aspectos de saúde e trabalho – QSETS were used for data collection. Most were young (mean 28, 8 years, ranging from 17 to 60 years); male, married, with children; 75.5% had up to seven years of schooling (fundamental incomplete education) and 86.6% had a formal employment relationship. The majority reported activities in the main stages of crops, planting, cultivation and harvesting. Issues related to working conditions and the use of the body was reported: permanence in long tiring postures, standing, crouching, weight bearing and repetitive movements; and 39.6% were exposed to agrochemicals. Regarding health, 43% of workers reported some type of illness and 60% of those who had pain in the last six months or exposed to pesticides, considered their health worse or a little worse than people of the same age. The research allowed us to describe the work in the vegetable culture, identifying the need for the adoption of preventive measures, in particular in the questions of the musculoskeletal system and exposure to pesticides in order to prevent illness.

Keywords: Occupational health, Working conditions, Rural workers, Life style

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Secondary education in institutions dependent on public universities: teaching perspectives that consolidate their prestige in Brazil and Argentina

 DI PIERO, Emilia
MATALUNA, Mariana

 

In this article we present the results of two doctoral researches, examining the views of teachers of schools in Brazil and Argentina dependent on public universities about the prestige of their institutions. In this sense, we intend to study the ways in which these teachers build and consolidate these schools as those that occupy an elite place in comparison with other educational institutions.
In the first place, we present a history of the secondary school system in both countries. Next, we examine the four schools chosen, highlighting some of their main characteristics: their origins, their specific features and those ones in which they are convergent.
Henceforth, we present the analysis of the privileged status that these schools occupy in the educational imaginary of their teachers. In this sense, in the eyes of these teachers, a space, constituted by an "us" that are separated from an "other" - which is supposed to be worse -, is delimited.
With respect to the methodology used in this article, we triangulated research techniques such as in-depth interviews and surveys of teachers and key players of the four educational institutions. Fieldwork was carried out between 2012 and 2016.
Keywords: Secondary School, university, inequality, elite, prestige

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Structural Change and Economic Development in Santiago del Estero. Period 1994/2007.

 

 Jorge Silveti

Noelia Gurmedi

Rita Salvatierra

 

One of the features that distinguish the type of truncated transition in which some underdeveloped economies such as those of Latin America are located is represented by the structural heterogeneity, the result of processes of transformation that achieved high productivity deployments in enclaves - detached from the internal market but integrated And a vast productive network that does not reach adequate levels of competitiveness, in the context of an economy that is still based on its natural resources. Santiago del Estero in the productive, is integrated as a marginal region of peripheral capitalism, where the process of productive modernization did not at any moment become a factor of change.

In the period under study, which begins during the beginning of the cycle of the convertibility boom (1994) and culminates with the end of the recovery phase of the model implemented after the fall of this plan (2007), Santiago del Estero recorded a rate of Growth of the Gross Provincial Product above the national rate. This was mainly due to the trend break in 2004.

The study shows that structural change led to an acceleration of the growth rate of all activities, but labor market deficiencies, based mainly on a weak industrial sector, prevented breaking with low level equilibria. Deforestation of the rural sector, which does not manage to be absorbed by the manufacturing sector, generates a continuous tension in the labor market. The services sector then acted as a decompression valve and grew disproportionately, in informal activities and in public employment.

Keywords: economic development, production structure, structural change, neostructuralism.

 

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 The Practice of a Marginalized Medicine in Argentina: The Case of Medical Homeopaths

 Betina Freidin

Homeopathy has been practiced in Argentinean medical circles for about two centuries. Since late 19th century, organized Homeopaths have mobilized to achieve recognition by health regulators and to elevate the status of the discipline in the profession. Although there is a longstanding tradition of postgraduate education imparted by Schools of Homeopathy, the discipline remains excluded from the curriculum of medical schools and only exceptionally postgraduate education in Homeopathy has been supported by private or national universities. Homeopathic medicine in Argentina is a paradigmatic case of a medical heterodoxy that has been the object of active and passive forms of intra-professional marginalization. In this article, we firstly present an overview of the development and global diffusion of the discipline, followed by a review of the contemporary controversies around it. Secondly, we briefly summarize the history of Homeopathy in the country, and the mobilization of homeopathic associations to gain official recognition, pointing to its ambivalences. Finally, we present how medical homeopaths view the constraints and opportunities to practice Homeopathy in Argentina.
Keywords:
Homeopathy, medical profession, heterodoxies, intra-professional marginalization

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Expanding the meaning of work: the Social Income with Work-Argentina Works Program as a limited employer of last resort

 Agustín Mario

This article analyzes the Social Income with Work (PRIST), of the Argentina Works line of social policy, implemented in August of 2009. First, we describe the transformations in matter of social policy that took place during the Kirchner-Era emphasizing the circumstances that led to the implementation of the program under analysis. Then, we examine the PRIST´s institutional design and evaluate some data from the Social Development Ministry (MDS) that allow to account for the number of beneficiaries, their characteristics, the activities undertaken as part of the program, the response of the beneficiaries, and the relation between program participation and the insertion in the labor market. The PRIST constitutes a partial or limited employer of last resort (ELR) program; in that sense, we then compare the ELR theoretical proposal with the PRIST. Finally, we discuss the main objections that the literature has done regarding the design and implementation of the program. Using the PRIST experience, we show how the ELR can generate employment –y, thus, provide income. Moreover, the PRIST experience shows that an ELR program can contribute to the re-definition of the meaning of work, by recognizing that certain forms of work, unrecognized by the private market, are socially useful.
Key words:
Argentina works, employer of last resort, work

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Global Crisis and technological change in the steel industry in Argentina and the World (1970-1990)

 Emiliano Mussi

This article will show how the economic crisis was processed in the steel industry in the years 1970-1990 in Argentina and the world. The crisis updated the possibility of incorporating technology. Those capitals that could incorporate this technology on time, achieved greater competitiveness and tackle the economic crisis. Japan and South Korea were at the forefront of this incorporation, and argentine companies Acindar and Siderca. In contrast, although for different reasons, the United States and argentinianSomisa state company, were relegated.
Keywords:
steel - technological change - innovation – Argentina

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Building labor citizenship in the Mexican northern border

  

Marlene Solís

 Margarita Ávalos

In this article it is of our interest to analyze the role civil society has had in the construction of labor citizenship, understanding that the principle of recoverableness of labor rights is a necessary condition for democratic life inside and out of labor spaces. Recognition of labor rights as human rights has been a long fight, so now a day, when we face a new labor reform and unstable and precarious labor markets, it is of particular relevance. In order to understand the mechanisms of intervention of civil society in the resolution of labor conflicts, as a fundamental element to advance in the construction of citizenship from a labor point of view, we analyze the Ollin Calli's discourses and practices in the resistance of workers from a transnational factory, and the forms of fight that has stimulated the Coalición Pro Justicia de las Maquiladoras along the northern border of Mexico.
Keywords:
labor citizenship, civil society, maquiladoras, labor rights, recoverableness, northern border of Mexico

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Workers and popular resistance in Tucumán in the beginnings of the dictatorship of Onganía: murder of Hilda Molina Guerrero and popular uprising in Bella Vista

Silvia Nassif


In the first months of 1967, the province of Tucumán, Argentina, was sunken in a deep economic and social crisis. In the very early stages of the dictatorship of the self-proclaimed Revolución Argentina headed by the de facto president general Juan Carlos Onganía a decree in August 1966 declared the intervention and closure of sugar mills in this province. Despite a significant portion of national trade unions depositing their expectations in the dictatorship, local sugar workers at the Tucuman Sugar Industry Workers Federation (FOTIA) organised actions to protest this situation.

It was in this political context that in January 1967 Hilda Molina Guerrero, wife of a laid-off sugar worker and member of the female branch of the Peronist party, was murdered just a few meters away from the Bella Vista Trade Union premises. This crime in the sugar town of Bella Vista gave way to a true “pueblada” (uprising), the first one to take place since the establishment of the dictatorship. From that moment on, Hilda remained int the popular consciousness as a symbol of the struggles of this period and she is a part of the collective memory to this day. However, and despite its historical importance, little is known about the facts that led to this event.

This work reconstruct the circumstances in which Hilda Molina Herrero was killed by a member of the police force, just as the union, FOTIA, was carrying out a coordinated plan to prevent the closure of the mills by the dictatorship. We demonstrate the lack of veracity of the official version released by the Police Headquarters of the Tucuman province and we analyse the full relevance of this event.

Keywords: Hilda Molina Guerrero, FOTIA, labour movement, self-appointed dictatorship “Argentina Revolution”, “pueblada”, popular uprising.

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Contributions of Latin American critical thinking for the study of the class structure and social mobility

José Javier Rodriguez de la Fuente


The study of the links between the processes of development, modernization, social stratification and mobility, was in the center of the postwar discussion on the causes and consequences of changes in the socio-occupational structure. Much of the research that linked these topics were approached from the perspective of modernization theory, under the orthodox consensus structural - functionalist. However, the universalist and evolutionist claim of that paradigm, was widely criticized by other contemporary trends that also theorized about aspects of development in the specific context of Latin America. Thus a reference may be made to both the pioneering, continuous and changing studies of Prebisch, under the orbit of ECLAC structuralism; different approaches including in the so-called "dependency theories" and the analysis of the heterogeneous nature of the economic and social structure of the peripheral countries.

In this way, the work proposes to trace elements of these critical approaches that are part of what might be termed "Latin American critical thinking" that were central in discussions produced between the 50s and 70s, for use in the understanding of the processes of structuring classes and the study of social mobility in the Latin American context of the beginning of the 21st century.

Keywords: development, dependency, structural heterogeneity,  class structure, social mobility, Latin America.

 

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(Re)thinking the concept of reflexivity in the field work context

Mariana Tello


This article approaches the complexities of ethnographic practice as lived theory (Peirano, 2008) and delves into a concept that begun taking centrality in social sciences in the 1980s and still provokes debates nowadays: reflexivity. Revising the author's own professional trajectory within the anthropology of violence and sociopolitical conflicts, the article inquires how a reflexive disposition is acquired and transmitted in the construction of ethnographic data. Finally, the article presents an examination of the political, ethical and epistemological tensions which intersect the researcher's perspective in the process of knowledge production.

Keywords: reflexivity, social sciences, ethnography, political violence.

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Culture and social movements: interpretations of social protest in employees, recovered companies employees and traders of AMBA

Jorge Castro Rubel, Matías Artese y Hernán Tapia

In this article we propose to conduct an inquiry on the culture of protest and social conflict in three groups of different insertion in social and productive structure: employees, recovered companies employees and traders from Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We carry out a survey through which we explore various aspects of representations generated by the protest and social conflict, digging through various scenarios of formats, demands and subjects involved. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the culture of protest and conflict in each of the analyzed personifications.
Keywords:
conflict, culture, employees, cooperative members, traders.

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Social Representations about the the Universal Child Allowance (AUH) among peripheral urban lower classes

María Maneiro


In this article the Universal Child Allowance (AUH) is analyzed from a historical itinerary point of view regarding social security in Argentina. Following this line of thought, the article begins with a brief overview regarding the process of understanding social protections as an establishment with crisis due to the importance of informality work. After that, AUH is described: requirements, possibilities and difficulties. The originality of this presentation is based on the idea of investigating the social representations that the peripheral urban lower classes elaborate around the social security, in general and the AUH, in particular. For this purpose, four cases were selected that correspond to diverse socio-occupational trajectories, under the hypothesis that this prism can be useful to analyze different meanings about our object. Finally, with this substrate, various representative profiles around social segurity are put into scene.  The suggested profiles are: the exclusive employee, the proactive worker, the ascetic beneficiary and the claimant citizen.

The empirical base used on this presentation is a series of semi-structured interviews conducted during the month of November 2014 in Buenos Aires.

Keywords: social security- Informality work, work, universal Child Allowance, social Policy, social representations

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Treatment of Production bodies in the labor courts. The case of the fishing industry. Mar del Plata, Argentina

Romina Denisse Cutuli

In this paper the process of progressive health workers unprotected analyzed from the 1990s through the Mar del Plata’s fisheries. Through court judgments can display the specialized conception of the disease, which makes the association between sickness and work accident. This constitutes an obstacle to economic damage repair work , while collaborating with the reproduction of the working conditions that cause such damage. Legislative reforms in the mid- 1990s deepened the lack of workers, reducing the chances of access to justice for workers affected by the disease - job accident. In turn, the casualization of labor relations reduced opportunities for economic compensation for the damage, since the difficulty of demonstrating the relationship between damage and the work adds to demonstrate the employment relationship.
Keywords
: labor courts, fishing industry, occupational health, job insecurity, compensation.

 

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Social security at territorial level. The case of the Province of Neuquen

María Ignacia Costa

 Susana Hintze

 
Two systems of Social Security converge in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina: the national one (provided by ANSES, Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social) and the provincial system, headed by the Instituto de Seguridad Social del Neuquen (ISSN). Although other provincial states that have not transferred their pension systems to National Government have similar structures, this case is special because ISSN includes different social services and other policies like social tourism, health attention, etc. Also in the case of family allowances, the national system coexists with the provincial one.
The aim of this article is to reconstruct and to analyse comparatively the protections and the implementation conditions of two following sub-systems of the social security system: the pensions system (national and provincial) and the Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social (AUH) in the Province of Neuquen. The functional dimension of the implementation regime (area of ​​influence, reference population, networks or institutional linkages and quality of protection provided in each jurisdiction) and the political one (relationship between jurisdictional levels) will be specifically studied and analysed.
With regard to the AUH, the hypothesis that guides the work recognizes certain degree of autonomy in the management of local government officials to implement policies within the margins that provide highly standardized formats.
We systematize an extensive qualitative fieldwork comprising interviews and observations made ​​in the six towns of the province which are units of ANSES and ISSN delegations.
Key words: social security - pension system - universal child allowances - implementation regime - protection capacity - territory

 

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Unstable boundaries between "productive" and "reproductive" work.

Theoretical reflections from the work in the hospitality industry

 Débora Garazi

Based on reflections of work in the hotel sector in Mar del Plata city between the '60s and' 80s, in this article we propose to raise a theoretical and conceptual discussion that has strained the traditional categories productive and reproductive work. We start from the idea that the service sector, and especially those that offer benefits linked to the reproduction of life have a particular productivity. We will focs in the ways in which the work has been approached from the Social Sciences and repair on the notions of 'work' that supported these studies. Then, from the analysis of different types of sources we reconstruct some of the features which acquired the work in the hospitality between the decades of '60 and '80 in Mar del Plata. We support the idea that some of the features of this work is approaching the so-called productive work, and others, to reproductive work. Therefore, the interpretation in binary terms contributes to made invisible some characteristics of some of works  that combine elements of both and according to the context and the impact of such factors as a space of realization, paid or free character, the beneficiaries or the gender of the worker, are closer to one or the other.
Keywords:
Productive work- reproductive work- services- hospitality- Mar del Plata

 

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The complaint about the law of employee participation in profits: the development of social-political tensions and the struggle for power in Argentina

Gabriel Esteban Merino

The Draft Law on Worker Participation in corporate profits, boosted in 2010 by the leadership of the CGT and supported by Nestor Kirchner, was central to political debate both within the political force articulated to the government at the time, as well as with anti-government actors. Discussions on this initiative became relevant in 2010 when from the CGT, supported by leaders of the national government and other political forces, set the agenda for a possible vote in Congress. From this moment, a struggle of speeches started between social-political forces, the effectuation of a present right embodied in the Constitution but is not guaranteed in practice, the obverse is the struggle for economic surplus and its reverse is the struggle for power in Argentina. The dispute is spread within a context characterised by a gradual strengthening of organized labor movement (particularly the CGT led by MTA core) and its growing influence on the socio-political alliance articulated by Kirchner until 2011. With them are getting deeper political and social tensions in the joint "kirchnerista" and, more generally, between sectors of capital and labor.
Keywords:
Organized Workers, CGT, Kirchnerismo, Capital, participation in corporate

 

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The Labor-centric Illusion: Contradictions in the Argentine Welfare Regime

under Kirchnerism

Giuseppe Manuel Messina

This article discusses the contradictions in the Argentine Welfare Regime, which have emerged under Presidents Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández. In particular, it deals with the scope of the expansion in non-contributory social policy, which aimed at the universalization of a minimum social protection floor for the previously excluded sectors, but failed to narrow the gap with the traditional contributory social security system. Through an analysis of the phases in which this political experience unfolded, we observe at first a reconstruction of the wage relationship, imbued with the rhetoric of “development with social inclusion”, which led to a reinstatement of a labor-centric approach to social integration. However, this process was incomplete because -among other things- the existence of an irreducible nucleus of labor informality, which reinforced the fragmentation of social protection, inherited from previous decades into multiple systems -public and private- according to income and employment status. Hence the hypothesis that guides this essay is that these contradictions are the result of a mismatch between the observable continuities in the regime of accumulation and the incomplete attempt to reestablish a mode of regulation with similar features that those existing at the time of the industrialization period and the genesis of the Argentine Welfare State.
Keywords:
Argentina, social policy, Welfare Regime

 

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 Occupational Structure Heterogeneity and Labor Market Segmentation.

Gran Buenos Aires, 1974-2014.

Santiago Poy

The article’s objective is to describe the urban occupational structure’s long-term trends, in order to determine the continuities and changes under different macroeconomic regimes, in terms of three key aspects: its structural heterogeneity –with special reference to the micro-entrepreneurial or ‘informal’ sector–, the labor market segmentation and labor earnings inequality. In particular, it examines the hypothesis that states that it is the heterogeneous dynamic of occupational structure what determines the access to social-protected jobs, and labor earnings distribution, although labor regulations changes are taken into consideration. Micro-data from household’s survey (Encuesta Permanente de Hogares) are used, for the period 1974-2014, corresponding to Gran Buenos Aires area. The research finds an increase in the heterogeneous performance of occupational system with broader consequences in terms of labor earnings distributive pattern.
Keywords:
Structural heterogeneity; labor market segmentation; labor earnings distribution.

  
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Structural heterogeneity and labor precarity:

Taking into account the working poor

 Dasten Julián Véjar

Javier Hernández Aracena

Precariousness became a central concept when looking at economic relations in Chile and other Latin American countries. This is directly related to the introduction of neoliberalism and labor deregulation. In this paper we propose that precariousness and its role during the processes of economic value creation challenge categories such as “structural heterogeneity” as proposed by ECLAC. We use secondary sources to portray the reality of the so-called "working poor" in Chile, who are increasing their quantitative presence asa result of a general trend towards labor and social precarization. We think that our analysis complements, critically, the categories employed by ECLAC to understand Chilean social structure.

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Informality as field of discussion in the context of the emergence of the concept: juxtapositions between employment  problems and poverty


Eliana, Lijterman

Informality as concept has a mixed texture, wherein problematizations stands apart and intertwines, generating differentiateds interventions in the contemporary labour and social policies's field. Finding out traces of past's discourses in currents problematizations, we have endeavored to recover programmatic and theoritical discussions that crossed the concept's emergence context, in 70’s decade. That context had characterized by an intense production pf diagnosis, explanations and politics recommendations about employment issues, wich were transforming in Latin America since the sixties. An institutions, schools of thought and academicians’s mixture had a leading role in the discussions about the currents employment issues. Our focus of analysis was the identification of the ways in wich the employment issues were demarcated (defined, explained and conceptualized) and the intervention was delimited. Due to aour research, we were interested in detect the links between the employment’s problematizations, poverty and social policys. We worked on the basis of treating three diferentstheoretical’s perspectives. The analysis demostrates that they were very intersected but there are a few theoritcal and programmatic’s coordinates that allow for differentiating them. Those perspectives were: the ECLAC’s approach, called latinoamerican structuralism, about wich we worked based on R. Prebich’s and A. Pinto’s writings; the ILO’s approach, characterized as neostructuralist, whose reading were done in basis of . Tokman’s work, who were one of the institution’s reference in informality’s treatment in Latin America; and to tackle the depency’s theory we selected José Nun’s, AníbalQuijano’s and Ruy Mauro Marini’s writings.

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Labour politics of the government of patricio aylwin and its impact in the chilean syndicalism

 

   Julio César González Candia

Francisco Zapata Schaffeld

The aim of the  article is to  analyse the labour politics of the first government post dictatorially in Chile, we refer to that of Patricio Aylwin Azocar, and to know his impact in the bases of power of the union movement. To achieve this intention, there was studied the system of labour relations during the political transition, putting emphasis in the agreements I mark - tripartismo and labour reforms. Also they are mentioned as relevant topics of the present work, the debatable need of political stability during the transition and the reopening space to recover the role of social actor on the part of the syndicalism. In the development of the article, together with checking the expositions of theoretical and investigators, actors' opinions join linked directly to the problematics, fruit the above mentioned, of a series of interviews realized to union, academic, leader leaders of national level of political parties and ex-authorities of the government in question.
 

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The constitutive dimensions of social well-being: a conceptual proposal

 Eugenio Actis di Pasquale


Most of the studies on social well-being are done from a technical and analytical perspective, since its analysis involved in a number of dimensions or fields of social concern -health, education, housing, income, etc.-, without prior preparation of the theoretical concepts involved. While the development of a construct based on the characteristics or properties of social units is not easy, it is essential from a methodological and conceptual perspective.

In this paper we aim to meet that need taking as a starting point a concept of social well-being that includes the reciprocal relationship between the individual and society and therefore understands people as active subjects. From the five dimensions that comprise -enjoy a good health, enjoy public safety, achieve an appropriate educational level, have a decent work and live in a suitable home-, we conducted a brief discussion on the scope of each and then arrive the corresponding definitions.

The most important aspects of this conceptualization are in the last two components, incorporating decent work as achieving social well-being and home not only as a unit of social reproduction, but also of gender roles and mandates.

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Like pouring water into the sea: otherness and distinction in the identity construction of a movement of unemployed workers

 Santiago Nardin

In this article we analyse the identity construction in a cooperative of the “Argentina Trabaja” program, linked to a movement of unemployed workers, attending at the experience of its members, and interested in the tensions that cross its constitution. Otherness and distinction will be central notions of this work, related to two phenomena that structure the experience of marginalized fractions: the processes of collective organization and social differentiation. Both refer to dynamic construction of identity (individual and group) around which legitimate patterns of action and sociability are organized. We suggest that these are subjective forms of demarcation of border that define the criteria for membership of the cooperative and the movement, and therefore affect the configuration of the popular politicity.

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Social Economy and critical thinking. Contributions to the analysis of the current scenario.

 Analé Barrera

 This article intends to identify and characterize the different views on “social economy” (SE) in contemporary Argentina. From the understanding that this concept is used in a generic way, with diverse and contradictory senses that refer to an undefined field of economic activities, two positions are broadly distinguished: a perspective of integration to capitalism and another one that criticizes it. Moreover, the focus would be set on the second one. For this purpose, the paper would recover the analysis that Marx and Engels did about cooperatives and utopian socialists.
At this point, SE current reality in Argentina would be approached through the raising of new questions.

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The neoliberal tendency in the new public management:

To govern through the market

 Sebastián Botticelli


This article aims to examine the assumptions and implications of New Public Management. Because of the recommendation of international financial institutions, this line of administrative thinking had a large degree of dissemination in the last decade of the twentieth century and influenced several state reform processes that were experienced in Latin America. Based on this review, it will be shown that the usual characterization that defines the neoliberal tendency as a mere contraction of the size of the structures of public administration does not sufficiently considered the changes in the logic used by the State to redefined its forms of intervention in the social dynamics. The present work hopes to configure new criteria for the critical inquiry of our current time attending to the persistence of the past in our ways to understand the world and act on it.

Key words: Neoliberal gubernmentality, state administration, new managerialism.

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Characterization and labor insertion of street vendors:

the case of San Victorino in Bogotá

 Roberto Mauricio Sánchez Torres

This article presents a characterization of street vendors and analyses the ways of labor insertion in that activity, based on the case of San Victorino in Bogotá. The research takes as analytical reference the fieldwork that was done in San Victorino. The fieldwork was formed by the application of a survey based on non-probability sampling answered for 414 street vendors and at the same time some testimony were collected, both of them contributed to the study about labor insertion. Throughout the article some topics are tackled and are emphasized: the heterogeneity in career path and characteristics of street vendors; the relevance of specific population groups within street vendors; and the link between labor insertion in street sales and some social, historical and economic aspects.
Keywords
: street vendors; labor insertion; informal activities; habitus; labor situation in Colombia.

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Development issues, social classes and the bourgeoisie

in LatinAmerica: Conceptualreflections

 

Gabriela Wyczykier

The article proposes the systematic introduction of a set of theoretical, conceptual and characteristics of Latin American social sciences emerged between the 60 and 70, which discussed the issue of social classes in relation to the uniqueness that adopted policies problematizations development issues, underdevelopment and dependency in the region. In particular, it distinguishes and presents from a bibliographic reflection approach the existence of a singular concern present in various approaches for the forming process, consolidation and objectification of the bourgeoisie as a class in Latin America. While the analytical production period is interested in presenting vast and rich, for writing an elective cutting inserts work in scientific thinking and critical Marxist, and structuralism of CEPAL. interpretative key enabling introduce trends in how to address these processes is performed.
 The recovery of these analyzes interest charges in the current millennium whereas in many countries in the region has returned to the political and academic debate development issues as a matter, in this connection, the position of its constituent groupings, so reentering active discussion on the role of local, national, transnational bourgeoisie, as actors dynamics in this procces.
Key Words: clases - Latin America – development – dependency - bourgeoisie

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Global Crisis and technological change in the steel industry in Argentina and the World (1970-1990)

 Emiliano Mussi

This article will show how the economic crisis was processed in the steel industry in the years 1970-1990 in Argentina and the world. The world unity updated the possibility of incorporating technology. Those capitals that could incorporate this technology on time, achieved greater competitiveness and tackle the economic crisis. Japan and South Korea were at the forefront of this incorporation, and argentine companies Acindar and Siderca. In contrast, although for different reasons, the United States and argentinian Somisa state company, were relegated.
Keywords:
steel - technological change - innovation - Argentina

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Serenade to Cafayate. “A Gift to the People in the Transformation Process of the Traditional Physiognomy

 Andrea Villagrán e Irene López

La Serenata a Cafayate (Serenade to Cafayate), held since 1974 up to this date, is tackled in this work as an event with enormous analytical potential, inasmuch as investigating about it raises different questions and enables the exploration of multiple dimensions. These dimensions refer to the spheres of work, of social relationships, of celebrations, and the senses they concentrate.  Taking into consideration the perspective offered by the social exchange theory, as well as the concepts of total social fact and seasonal variation of M. Mauss, the Serenade can be understood -beyond its celebratory and folkloric show nature- as part of a complex structure of transformations occurring in a context of productive restructuring and labor organization which impact on the diverse spheres of life and, mainly, in the way the relationships between employer-landowners and employees-farm worker are established.  Within the framework of that process, the exhaustion of a “traditional system” of interrelation becomes evident and a progressive redefinition of social status takes places along with a role reconfiguration. The article shows a series of significant displacements on the social, economic, and cultural orders since the Serenade concentrates and reframes a set of practices which precedes it, developed in private spheres, within the farms and in forums common to the elite, towards a space that is becoming public at the same time that a collective subject, the “people”, is formed.  It is for this collective subject that the show is held, in the sense of a “gift”.
Key Words:
Event - social processes - landowners and farm workers - "gift"

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Labor process in the manufacture of harvesters in Argentina (1920-1960):
the case of Senor company

 Damián Andrés Bil

The industry is one of the most studied items on the economic history in Argentina. However, they are few studies on the development of the labor process in the country. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the labor process evolution in the Argentinian combine industry between 1920 and 1960, from the study of the company Senor, based on interviews and information about the firm. To compare their situation with global standards, we also reconstruct the process in the largest firm in the United States (International Harvester Company). We believe that this comparative approach can provide insight into the limits of the competitiveness of the sector in Argentina and contribute to the debate on the so-called industrialization in the country and the continent.
Keywords
: organization of production (L23); combines-harvesters industry (L62); industrial structure Argentina (N16); skills and labor productivity (J24).

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Campo de Herrera: history in the reedbed. Investigation, extension

and rural self-organization

 Cecilia Gárgano

In 1966, during the dictatorship headed by General Juan Carlos Onganía, several sugar cane were closed in the province of Tucuman, in northwest Argentina. One of them, the former mill "Bella Vista", became the “Cooperativa de TrabajadoresUnidos de Campo de Herrera”, the first experience of an agricultural cooperative organization in Argentina the country. The history of the emergence and trajectory of this cooperative, located in the locality in Famaillá, had the National Agricultural Technology Institute (INTA) first organization dedicated to research and rural extension throughout Latin America as the main actor, which was indeed the first organization dedicated to research and rural extension throughout Latin America. INTA suggested that lands could be exploited collectively. An anthropologist and a technician crew were involved in the next chapter, when they were part of a team that built a fundamental link in the life of the cooperative, during the political and social upheaval in the 1970s. From institutional documents, research materials and interviews, this article analyzes the trajectory of this experience, from the beginning until the dismantling of the team, as part of a repressive cycle of long duration.
Keywords
: agriculturalcooperative; extension; research; sugarcanemill

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Labor reality, rights and unionism in the horticultural workers

of Gran La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) 1990-2009

 Soledad Lemmi

 The present article deals with the situation of the rural peons in the Horticultural area, their labor rights and the scope of their fulfillment. In turn, and in direct relation to the above, the role played by the Argentine Union of Rural Workers and Stevedores (UATRE), a guild that groups these workers in the sector under study, their trade union and political actions and the Difficulties that it finds in a complex socio-productive context such as horticultural. This is part of the Marxist theoretical framework, and is combined with a methodology of quantitative-qualitative analysis that explores primary information sources (interviews, newspapers, censuses) and secondary. Itisconcludedthatthecharacteristics of thesalariedworkers in question, theproductionpatterns and production, alongwiththeideology of theunion are theelementsthatexplaintheunionaction.
Keywords:
Argentina; horticulturalists; salaries; rights; tradeunions

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Pastors of the “new paradigm”: organicintellectuals and hegemonicconstruction

of agribusiness

 María Dolores Liaudat

 In the last decades, in our country, a big transformation of the agricultural model with the advance of agribusiness has been witnessed. The adoption of a new social form of production is necessarily associated with the transformation of the ways of living, thinking and feeling of the actors that lead it. In this sense, it is particularly relevant the ideological work for the dissemination and teaching of another form of interaction with nature, technology and labor relations. In this article we investigate a series of local actors who have promoted the agribusiness paradigm: HéctorOrdoñez, VíctorTrucco, HéctorHuergo and Gustavo Grobocopatel.From a Gramscian perspective we identify the different tasks that they fulfill as agribusiness organic intellectuals through the analysis of two dimensions. On the one hand, their life trajectories: the passage from one space of socialization to another in relation to the agricultural world, the networks that they interweave and the spaces in which they converge. On the other hand, the conception of the world they hold, identifying the conceptual nuclei, the roots and the ideological characteristics of their discourses. Through their itineraries of thought and action we identify the network of power that interweaves around the ideological building of agribusiness in our country
Keywords
: agribusiness; organic intellectuals; ideology; discourse; hegemony

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Agrochemicals in question, practices in tension. The use of agricultural
nputs and environmental care in family Lobería farmers.

 Luciana Muscio

 This paper is about productive practices and decisions that family farmers of Lobería, Buenos Aires province, make on agrochemicals use. Through interviews it is analized uses and main economic, technological and symbolic conditioning factors involved in interviewee decisions making and their relationship with chemical inputs uses. According to interviewees speech about their practices it is identified different perceptions of safety / danger of these inputs and different razonabilidades about care-or not-of natural resources and the environment.
Keywords
: chemical inputs; production decisions; conditioning factors; rationality.

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 Territory and accumulation. Considerations about megacorporation’s and agribusiness logics in Argentina

 Virginia Toledo López

The article analyzes the case of the installation of a biodiesel production plant in Santiago del Estero. Particularly, it seeks to understand the strategy of accumulation of mega-companies in Argentine agriculture. Also, it aims to contribute to the reflection on the forms of penetration of capitalism logics in the territories. The methodology is mostly qualitative, through documentary analysis of primary and secondary sources.

Keywords: territory; agribusiness; (mega)companies; extractivism; biodiesel.

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Gender and inequalities in the labor market: the separation of private drivers from domestic service in Argentina

Inés Pérez


Throughout the twentieth century,work was progressively regulated by the state and associated with different social rights. Domestic service was poor and belatedly included in these regulations, only after the separation of certain specialized occupations that were previously considered part of this work. Indeed, during the nineteen forties some workers formerly part of domestic service, would achieve the enactment of specific regulations that guaranteed them an independent status.As part of this process, in 1946 private drivers obtained the sanction of a specific legal code that explicitly excluded themfrom domestic service, giving them certain rights that would only be recognized for domestic workers a decade later and, even then, only in a limited way. From the analysis of bills, parliamentary debates, legal journals and case law, in this article I reconstruct the paths through which private drivers were able to distinguish themselves from domestic service, becoming a professionalized occupation, noting the significance that gender had on this process.

Key words: work, gender, labor rights, domestic service, private drivers

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Don’t be excellent, be strive.

Critical approach to the ethical core of individualized job market in Chile


Hugo Sir Retamales

In the following paper, we explore the symbolic position of the category of “effort” inside chile's labor market. In order to achieve that, we draw a brief description of the major changes on the labour market during Pinochet’s dictatorship and their links with global transformations in the statesmanship. Later, we describe our main results, focusing on the symbolic position of the “effort” category and his link with a general grammar perfectly suited up to precarity, flexibility and vulnerability conditions. In the final reflections, the analysis is Synthesized in order to show the “effort” as an ethic core who sustains the personal actions, in a world of labour completely individualized. The methodology of this work is exposed before of our results. 
Keywords:
Labour market, individualization, excellence, effort, ethical core

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Inclusion policies and sociability in kindergartens of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires: between mutual recognition and new dynamics of exclusion

 

Nora Gluz

Inés Rodríguez Moyano


This article presents research findings about democratization processes in early education in the period 2003-2015, focusing on the implementation of the Universal Child Allowance (UCA) policy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It examines comparatively the bonds that institutional actors and families deploy in schools located in high social vulnerability territories.
It is a case study that shows the scopes and limits of the rights’ expansion in inclusive policies toward early childhood. It shows that, together with the significant expansion of the offer, in contexts of institutional weakness and insufficient resources, distinctive and segregative ways of sociability are produced tensing the logic of rights that the measures have helped to set up. It also warns that stigmatizing representations regarding poor sectors survive and, in the frame of the educational conditionality of the UCA, become one of the sources of coercion from school towards families. Finally, it detects some delicate situations such as inclusive education of children with special needs in the context of the institutionalized paradigm with the National Law of Integral Protection of girls, boys and teenagers’ rights.

Key words
: social policy, social inclusion, Universal Child Allocation (AUH), sociability, elementary school, Argentina.

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Invisible Women. Politics of secrecy among women who perform commercial sex

Santiago Morcillo


In this article I explore the political implications of the practice of splitting and hiding performed by women engaged in commercial sex in order to keep secret its insertion in the "prostitution". For this I rely on the analysis of observation and interviews with women who perform commercial sex under different modalities and in three cities: Buenos Aires, San Juan and Rosario. This allowed me to learn about different tactics women use to manage information and ways to avoid or confront stigmatization.

Here I propose a political reading of the effects of these tactics, both at the symbolic constructions they enable or hinder and in relation to the processes of organization and politicization of these women. Thus I seek to pose some questions arising from reflection on the possibilities and risks of secret / visibility process for various stigmatized subjects and in different cultural contexts.

Keywords: prostitution, visibility, stigma, hiding, secreto

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Nursing working conditions in Argentina: between professional and precarious health care

                                                            Eliana Aspiazu

Nursing is one of the "care occupations" within the complex framework of the health sector’s workforce. In this context, nursing has the distinctiveness of being the activity with the highest level of feminization in the health system (85% are women). It is also the occupation that carries the heaviest burden of direct care in its tasks. The issues affecting nurses in Argentina are diverse and have a negative impact both on their working conditions and on the quality of the care provided. Work overload, multi-employment, deficient infrastructure, lack of inputs and low salaries are part of the general situation the health sector. But nurses also present peculiarities that place them in a position of greater vulnerability. The deficit in the amount of nurses and their skill levels, together with the devaluation of their skills within health teams, add complexity to the employment outlook for this occupation. This article analyzes, based on available statistics and in-depth interviews, the changes that occurred in recent years in nursing, in terms of their role within health teams, the visualization of the occupation, and the meanings of care associated with it. Particularly, the article analyzes the impact of professionalization in the occupation, the socio-demographic changes associated with increased participation of men, the role of trade unions, as well as subjective and cultural aspects, such as perceptions about working conditions, motivations for choosing this profession, and its linkage with other health workers.
Key words
: Work conditions - Gender – Care occupations – Health Sector –nurses

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Gender and emotionalwork. Thefoundations of poor working conditions in preschool education. Mar del Plata, Province of Buenos Aires

Romina Denisse Cutuli  

This article addresses the poor working conditions in preschool education from a gender perspective. The limited presence of the state, both in its role as provider and control device in the provision of care, leaves child care trapped between familiarization and commodification, with greater intensity during the first three years of life. Therefore, early childhood education has a strong private component, which is also to a large extent informal and precarious, due to the working relations that sustain it, but also because of its meager institutional and infrastructure settings. Thesepoor working conditionshold a tense relationship with the quality requirements attributable to such aqualifiedoccupation. In this sense, this article suggests that the gendering of teaching at the initial level, and its consequent association with unpaid care work, act as a disqualifying factor of the job. Also, abnegation expectations assigned to the maternal role are added to this devaluing speech, allowing, ultimately, sustaining the tension between precariousness and quality. Keywords: Working conditions – Care work – Gender – Preschool teaching.

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The labour conditions of care workers in Argentina. Reflections based on the analysis of three selected occupations

 Valeria Esquivel y Francisca Pereyra 

The analysis of care–related occupations has acquired significant relevance in the feminist agenda of the last years. These occupations – mainly concentrated in the health and education sectors as well as in domestic service –are highly feminized and generate employment opportunities for many women. Nonetheless, they exhibit relatively poor working conditions, since care is usually associated to supposedly feminine abilities, socially undervalued as “real work”. At the same time, these poor labor conditions, especially meagre salaries, put in question the quality of care services provided. This article, based on the Argentinean case, proposes a comparative analysis of a selected group of care occupations, which include nurses, kindergarten and primary teachers, as well as domestic workers. Even when these occupations share certain vulnerabilities associated to their care content, their labor conditions present significant variations. Based on this situation, the main objective of this paper is to deepen in the understanding of the factors that mitigate or reinforce the social and economic devaluation of care–related occupations. By doing so, the article seeks to reflect on some key aspects that could be approached by public policy in order to improve the labor situation of these workers, and thus, the quality of care services provided.
Keywords:
Gender– Labor conditions– Care occupations– Domestic service – Nurses– Teachers.

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The task of community childcare workers in the suburbs of buenos aires, ¿a way of bottom up subsidy?

 Marisa Fournier 

The insufficient public childcare services in relation with the challenges faced by new family structures and the need for more than one income in vulnerable families result in overcharging poor women. It also causes less incomes in poor homes since childcare is an obstacle to work outside the house. Some of childhood politics articulate with community organizations that have become childcare centers. These are collective centers with strong neighbor and family bonds where urban poor women get organized to face children needs. Firstly, these women fulfilled feeding needs and then they started to satisfy learning and recreational needs. They provide childcare services for their own children and other´s. The work focuses on the analysis of the situation of these childcare workers in these mixed institutions where the community logic is strongly connected with the principles of the Social and Solidarity Economy. This community logic also mixes with childhood politics in high vulnerable territories. The other topic presented in the article is the auto perception and appreciation that these workers have of their task. It also describes how collective childcare impacts their personal lives.
Key words
: gender- community childcare workers- social and solidarity economy- childcare politics- feminism.

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Continuous security and double circulation of knowledge 

Nuria Giniger y Sara Cufré 

In its 66 years of history, the company Aerolíneas Argentinas has been privatized in 1991 and re-nationalized in 2008. When the State reassumed the company’s direction, it started to develop various corporate policies, some of them rooted in the company’s tradition and others rather novel. In previous works, we have identified that the current corporate policies are defined in terms of the Continuous Improvement perspective. In the case of Aerolíneas Argentinas labor rhythms intensification and costs reduction are organized through two elements: quality and security.
We have identified that the so called ‘Operational Security Culture’ goes through the group of corporate policies in Aerolíneas Argentinas and it spreads out values and specific tasks that workers must assume. In this sense, there’s a series of devices that the company sets in two directions: one related to training and the other to monitoring systems.
The aim of this article is to analyze the relation among the so called ‘Operational Security Culture’ and a double circulation of knowledge between the company and the workers. To do so, we will focus on a relevant secondary source: the corporate journal ‘CoOrdenadas’ which is specifically directed to the company workers.

Key words:
Corporate policy, Security Culture, Continuous Improvement

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The incomplete future: Cconstructing labor trajectories for early 21st century 

Ana Miranda y Milena Arancibia 

The analysis of labor trajectories among young people acquires new meaning when it is understood as part of a more complex social structuring process, in which social norms change over life course. We consider historical time influencing young adult’s lives by virtue of the opportunities offered by the contexts they transit during their youth. This article is part of a project on career paths of young people who graduated from school during Argentina´s socio-economic crisis. We present the results of a set of biographical interviews about transitions from education to working world in Grater Buenos Aires, using a typology based on the occupational category obtained at the age of 30. As part of the conclusions, debating in the field of youth studies and social structuring processes, based on arguments about the validity of the notion of "social generation", the expansion of "grammar" of youth between different social sectors is discussed.
Keywords:
Job placement, Labor trajectories, Social Generation, Education and work transition 

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Analysis of blowtorch workers in shipyard in Brazil: considerations about worker health in ergological perspective 

Rayana Ferreira Vinagre y Alexandre de Carvalho Castro
 

The objective of this paper was to analyze the work-health-diseases relationships that involves blowtorch workers activities, in shipyard located in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The qualitative methodology used by the 
theorical basis of ergology, designed by interviewing a particular manufactory ship blowtorch workers. The results evinced that, even though all the activities seemed to be, apparently the same, the blowtorch workers 
had the habit of develop their work`s activities in a singular way. Theses aspects could be realized by analyzing the uses of itself, through the achievement to extra hours and to the use of equipment, important things 
that also implies to the worker health.
Keywords: Human Factors at Work; Ergology; Ergonomics; Worker's Health; Shipbuilding industry.
 

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La Argentine Sociology in the sixties: Cátedras Nacionales, editorial projection and circulation of ideas  

Anabela Ghilini 

Cátedras Nacionales (CN) was a novel experience at the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) during the period from 1966 to 1973 related to the process of politicization and approach to Peronism of the media and academics. From the editorial point of view and dissemination of thought, this paper aims to identify the type held by many of this group with political and cultural projects linked to academia as the Antropología 3er. Mundo (ATM) and  Envido. Another aspect of our interest and could be considered part of the publishing projection of CN was the special link with some publishers and bookstores like Cimarron sociologist Miguel Hurts- along with bibliographic production. Moreover, in these years, some books were published members of the CN, such as the emblematic work of Roberto Carri “Isidro Velazquez, las formas prerevolucionarias de la violencia” (1968) expressing a fanoniana sociology. As part of this deployment it can also be mentioned the publication in late 1971 of Gramsci's writings under the “El Príncipe Moderno y la voluntad nacional-popular” title.
Keywords:
Politización- Peronismo- University- Social Science- Cátedras Nacionales-

 
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Failed “developments” at the historic mines Famatina and Capillitas: Issues for thinking about the current socio-enviornmental situation 

Facundo Rojas y Lucrecia Wagner 

This paper deals with the working conditions and the socio-environmental consequences of large-scale mining in the provinces of La Rioja and Catamarca, Argentina, between 1850 and 1914. It analizes the evolution of the largest mines, Famatina and Capillitas.
We affirm that the mining companies’ appropriation of the workers’ wages and the exploitation of natural resources influenced the crisises of these historic mines. These crises led to the abandonment of ore-rich sites for decades, and even did away with regional economic approaches that were based on large-scale mining, which initially seemed like a solution to the region’s problems, according to the governing elite. Even though the clearest causes of abandonment were high costs and difficult access for transportation, in addition to unfavorable economic and political situations in the country and in the world, other socio-enviornmental causes, which we highlight, have not been sufficiently evaluated.
We rely on the the critical analysis of historical documents, from perspectives and methodologies appropriate for climate history, sociology, and political ecology. We hope to contibute to issues that are essential for understanding the contradictions of our time,  as mining is curently being debated in these same areas and sites.

Keywords
: mining; Famatina; Capillitas; regional development; workers; political ecology.

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Over-education in Colombia: an analysis of the determinants and misalignments of the labor market at a national and regional context 

Raúl Francisco Quejada y Jorge Nelson Ávila 

This research addresses the phenomenon of over-education in Colombia, contextualized in the Caribbean Coast of the country. Methodologically, employed a probabilistic model Logit type to constrain the presence and /or absence of on education in the face of changes in variables such as age of the individual, type of contract, occupation of the same, and region of origin/residence. The results suggest that in the Colombian Caribbean Coast, the phenomenon of on education is presented in smaller proportion compared with the aggregate national and the great cities of the interior of the country. By way of conclusion establishes that over-education in Colombia can be solved with an analysis of productive vocations territorial (of departments and municipalities) and the coordination between the educational system and the labor market demand.
Keywords:
over-education, labor market, educational system, productive vocation.

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Essay about the restructuring of indirect tax system: socio-economic analysis about the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a single rate in Portugal

 

João Catarino, Ricardo de Moraes y Pedro Miguel Alves Ribeiro [1]

 

The common system of VAT adopted by all member states of the European Union, including Portugal, comprises various rates that differently tax goods and services subject to this tax. From a strictly control and management technical point of view it would be preferable to adopt a single tax rate. In this research we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a single rate of VAT in Portugal. The general conclusions are valid not only for all member states of the European Union, but also for all countries that adopt the VAT system.

Keywords: Single VAT rate; European Union; Value added tax; Consumption taxes; Tax equity.

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The cabecilla and cuadrillas in the formation of transient labor migration from Nueva Francia (Santiago del Estero) south of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina) 

María José Martínez 

This article looks at the story of a group of santiagueños rural workers have a long labor migration path, mainly in the south of the province of Buenos Aires. The special status when these workers is that the migration process which conforms participate exceptions, commanded by a “cabecilla” and from the grouping in “cuadrillas”. Therefore the main objective of this paper is to describe the analysis of their stories, the importance of this relationship that is built between the leader and members of the gangs. As methodological strategy it uses an "explanatory approach" from a case study. The choice of a form of qualitative approach seeks to understand and analyze in a given context and time behavior of social actors. Among the most interesting features is to highlight the importance of the dyad formed by the leader and the gang, as one of the most important components to consider in the construction of migrant process, not only as a means of recruitment and disciplining workers, but also as a mechanism of organization within this segment of workers in a context totally precarious.
Keywords:
Temporary labor migration; job placement; leader; gang; Argentina; Santiago del Estero.

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Challenges in addressing rural labor in northern Patagonia: women in forestation, fruit and horticulture 

Verónica Trpin, María Daniela Rodríguez y Silvia Brouchoud

 

This paper aims to reflect on our research practice in rural areas, about the tensions and challenges of women go to the field as holding glances with "lenses" gender. In the work of research has been necessary to consider our disciplinary backgrounds to address and bring more complex understandings of the studied regional issues: work processes and senses of belonging built by working men and women in various circuits rural production. Develop some tensions present in the fieldwork in production forestry, fruit and horticulture in the provinces of Neuquen and Rio Black, circuits in which men and women of migrant and indigenous origin are inserted. We believe that studying work spaces and experiences that men and women pass around work, is a double challenge: first to make complex, from ethnography, crosses between social class, gender and ethnicity as problematic unexplored field in agricultural studies. On the other hand, re-educate our gaze from the feminist contributions and not to reproduce, to masculinized activities, interpretive schemes which homogenize the worker category blurring gender inequalities present in rural areas.
Keywords:
rural labor; women; migrants; population mapuche; forestation; fruit farming; horticultura

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Macroeconomicdisruption and structuralcontinuity in Argentina post convertibility. A contribution to the debate on the nature of neoliberalism. 

Germán Pinazo, Marcelo Delfín y Ana Drolas 

This article aims to analyze aspects of the development of the Argentina economy since 2002 and, more specifically, the performance of its predominant agents, establishing the continuities and ruptures in relation to the neoliberal policies of the 90s.
The devaluation of 2002 began a period where historical records recorded in economic growth and job creation, which, in our view, initiated a major debate in the social sciences in our country linked to the nature of the process, and more specifically, whether these new dynamics were or not linked to a break with the neoliberal stage of its economic history.
The aim of this work is to contribute to this debate from a characterization that our view is novel in relation to the stage in question, from which we could reinterpret existing and original information (which will bring here) linked to some of the central points of the debate.

Key Words:
Neoliberalism; Argentina; Transnational companies; Neodevelopmentalism.

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The complaint about the law of employee participation in profits: the development of social-political tensions and the struggle for power in Argentina 

Gabriel Esteban Merino 

The Draft Law on Worker Participation in corporate profits, boosted in 2010 by the leadership of the CGT and supported by Nestor Kirchner, was central to political debate both within the political force articulated to the government at the time, as well as with anti-government actors. Discussions on this initiative became relevant in 2010 when from the CGT, supported by leaders of the national government and other political forces, set the agenda for a possible vote in Congress. From this moment, a struggle of speeches started between social-political forces, the effectuation of a present right embodied in the Constitution but is not guaranteed in practice, the obverse is the struggle for economic surplus and its reverse is the struggle for power in Argentina. The dispute is spread within a context characterised by a gradual strengthening of organized labor movement (particularly the CGT led by MTA core) and its growing influence on the socio-political alliance articulated by Kirchner until 2011. With them are getting deeper political and social tensions in the joint "kirchnerista" and, more generally, between sectors of capital and labor.
Keywords
: organized workers; CGT; kirchnerismo; capital; participation in corporate profits.

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Las luchas de la migración en contextos laborales: la experiencia de sindicalización de una trabajadora doméstica peruana en Córdoba, Argentina 

María José Magliano, María Victoria Perissinotti y Denise Zenklusen 

This paper sets out to reconstruct the unionization experience of a Peruvian domestic worker in Córdoba (Argentina), looking into the processes of subjectivity and resistance through which she becomes a political subject that activates the right to claim for rights. Assuming the challenge of capturing the specificity of contemporary global migrations, this paper analyzes –from a qualitatively methodological strategy– a life story, in order to understand those migration’ struggles whose claims do not refer to migration status and their legal aspect, but to work and labors rights. Therefore, it mainly incorporates two theoretical perspectives: autonomy of migration and intersectional perspective. Our premise starts from conceiving that the process we explore in this paper –understood as a “struggle” and related to a key aspect of migrant subjectivity as work is– is principally determined by the intersection of gender, social class and age within a life course.
Key words:
Struggles of Migration; Domestic Work; Autonomy of Migration; Migrant Women; intersectionality.

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Multilocalized research in transnational migratory studies: theoretical and practical contributions 

Patricia Jimena Rivero 

This article presents some theoretical and methodological considerations around the multilocalized research designs for the study of migrations. After the innovative proposal of anthropology to "follow" an object of study in movement, the field of migration became the most common contemporary research genre for this type of approach, especially if we focus on the work from a transnational perspective. It is argued that the multilocal researcher must construct research designs capable of "mapping" the social space of the studied group that is relationally analyze the places in which the subjects of study move. Precisely there is the contribution of the multisituated works: it is not the diversity of sites and locations where the researcher is located what makes its methodological contribution, but the construction of an object of study centered on the relationships, associations and links between those places. It is argued that while multisituated investigations offer wide methodological advantages, they also imply several challenges. The article illustrates the theoretical discussion about multilocalization with the design of a research on Argentinians returned from Spain in the period 2008-2016.
Key words:
multisituated ethnography, multilozalized research, transnational migration, transnationality, multisituated methodology. 

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Four decades of Unsatisfied Basic Needs in Argentina

 

Agustín Arakaki

 

Although Poverty Line (PL) is the most popular method for identification of poor people, its ability to account for a multidimensional phenomenon such as poverty has been questioned. Different methodologies have been proposed, one of the most important is the method of Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN). In this context, this article aims to adapt the latter to be applied to data from the Permanent Household Survey and analyze the evolution of the proportion of people identified as poor using this method in the long term.

We show that the number of people in households with UBN tends to reduce in the long term, but at different stages, whose averages are steps having a decreasing height. As a result of this evolution, 9.3% of the population in the GBA and 9.2% of the population in 28 cities lived in households with unsatisfied basic needs at the end of 2013. At the same time, we show that our results can be considered a good complement to the information provided by the method of the PL.

 

Keywords: Poverty, Unsatisfied Basic Needs, Argentina, Methodology for Poverty Measurement.

 

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Doing the night. the commercial and labor market of electronic clubs (Cordoba. Argentina)

 

 

Gustavo Blázquez

 

This article discusses some of the routines of interaction related to the commercial production of electronic scene and clubs in the city of Cordoba. Throw the description of the actions of the clubs’ owners and of different workers in the electronic scene I analize the social dynamics that made of the night a labor market for a group of young middle class during the first decade of the XXI century. How new generations were integrated to the economic and cultural development of the city? Which strategies were built by these individuals to enter the labor market? To answer these questions, we focus on the experience of young workers and entrepreneurs who combined "cultural capitalism" (Rifkin, 2000), the subsequent uncertainties to the 2001 crisis and the market expansion of the nightlife

 

Keywords: youth; dance music; labour; employment; nightlife

 

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Latin-American immigration, labor market and accumulation models in contemporary Argentina. A comparative analysis between the 90´s and the 2000´s

 

Nicolás Herrera y Gastón Ángel Varesi

 

The article analyzes -in a comparative manner- the integration of Latin-American immigrants in the Argentinian labor market, between the 90's and the 2000's. In the first part we review theoretical perspectives on models of accumulation, (un) employment and the labor nature of international migration, that allowed us to frame our study object. Regarding these theories, we understand that they have paid little attention to the changes and / or continuities, produced on the employment situation of immigrants by the passage from one accumulation model to another. Incorporating this analytical dimension, our research tries to make a first contribution.

After carrying out a long-term approach on the relationship between immigration and labor market in Argentina, in the second part of the paper, we use a set of statistical data to analyze the ruptures and continuities that occurred in the Latin American immigrants’ labor situation during the 90s and 2000s. Finally the article presents a series of conclusions that allow to recover a wide-ranging reading about how both models of accumulation impacted, occupationally, on this population.

 

Keywords: work; emerging factors; suffering-happiness

 

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On TV: brief characterization  of TV criticism in the press

 

Yamila Heram

 

The aim of this article is to share some reflections about television critic from the La Nación, Página/12, and Clarín and the magazines Página/30, El Porteño, Noticias and La Maga during Multimediatic period (1990-1194). We share the dominant lines of critics in each of the analyzed journals and magazines.

 

Key words: Television – printed press – television criticis

 

 

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Sociability and the world of labor. A newspaper newsroom case study

 

Laura Rosemberg

 

Whereas there are numerous approaches about the place that interpersonal relationships take when it comes to the insertion into the labor market, there are few studies on sociability as a dimension that runs across the various stages in people’s socialization at work. The ethnography study I performed at the newsroom of Tiempo Argentino newspaper to analyze the process of labor socialization of young journalists sparked my interest in this subject.

The implemented techniques –participant-observation, in depth-interviews and non-directive interviews– allowed me to notice that the analysis of the learning process of these young journalists and their socialization would be incomplete if we did not take into account a fairly widespread perception about their daily work in the newsroom: "the good working environment". Thus, in this article I analyze the role of sociability in the process of labor socialization based on a case study at the newsroom of Tiempo Argentino newspaper.

On one hand, through the description and analysis of the practices and representations of journalists, we see that sociability strengthens the collective character of the journalistic work. On the other hand, it operates as a guarantee for the continuity of journalists’ careers on this media and not in others.

 

Keywords: Labor sociability – Labor socialization – Journalism – Printed press – Ethnography 

 

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Incorporation of women in large law firms in Argentina

 

María Eugenia Gastiazoro

 

The study is related to the legal profession, mainly in the law firms sectors based on management tasks. Gender composition is observed in different hierarchies of some firms as a changing trend between 2006 and 2011. Occupational mobility of women is understood by taking into account the organizational discourse constructed and by analyzing what kind of professionals are included or excluded.

The importance of inquiring into these specific ways of organization, within the legal profession work environment, lies on the influence of the legal culture. Even though the 12 law firms, with which the analysis was done, do not represent prominent elite in Argentina, if we compare them to the total of professionals in the country, the consideration is appropriate as their practices have great influence in the internal legal culture of the profession itself. For that reason, this research explores and tries to reveal how gender and profession are configured among power and prestige areas.

 

Keywords: profession, law firms, women, Occupational mobility

 

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Sciences Education: new professional definitions from recent history

 

María Eugenia Vicente

 

A hundred years after the founding of the first career of Sciences Education in Argentina, at the National University of La Plata, the article aims to contribute to the knowledge about the professional characteristics of this discipline in contemporary history. Therefore, the structural modifications of the professional characteristics are reconstructed in dialogue with employability strategies, in the last forty years. The analysis suggests that the reconfiguration of Sciences Education promotes other conditions to produce knowledge in the educational field. The conclusions suggested new conceptualizations about the professional field and the graduate’s socio-professional practices that overcome the conceptions that recognize the Sciences Education as a fragmented, unstructured and hybrid discipline.

 

Key words: Sciences Education, professional field, strategies, graduates

 

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Heterogeneities and working conditions among academics at the University of Buenos Aires. A comparative study
between the Pharmacy and Biochemistry, and the Economics’ Schools

Cecilia Rikap

 

This article analyzes the working conditions of faculty from the case of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). In particular, we chose the Pharmacy and Biochemistry (FFyB) and Economics (FCE) faculties because they are, respectively, good examples of research and professional traditions, which coexist in the UBA. We concentrate on the following characteristics: perception of salary, job stability, the relationship between tasks performed and positions, dedication to research and importance of the income received from the UBA in the total individual income. As methodology, official statistical results are analyzed supplemented with information obtained from different offices of the UBA. Among the main results we observed a deterioration of faculty's working conditions, overall. However, after examining the FFyB and FCE, we revealed sharp heterogeneities. In the FCE working conditions are more critical than the overall results of the UBA, while the FFyB shows a more encouraging scenario. These findings lead us to believe in the need to develop different proposals to reverse these trends, focusing on the specifics of each type of school, and not just general tips for all the UBA.

 

Keywords: University, Undergraduate Faculty, Faculty Working Conditions,  University of Buenos Aires

 

 

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The subjective experience of inequality in everyday life. Contributions of Alfred Schutz’s phenomenological sociology

 

Daniela Griselda López

 

The analysis of social inequalities has frequently been presented in sociological research in terms of the distribution of assets and of social, cultural, or political opportunities, i.e., in terms of the objective possibilities of acquisition of strategic resources. However, little has been said about the subjective manifestation of the phenomenon. And in the works that have studied that aspect the assumption underlying sustains that the subjective experience of inequalities only involves comparisons with Others. Starting from a critical review of these perspectives the article recovers, from a theoretical viewpoint, the actor’s subjective meaning for the approach of social inequality taking as a reference Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically oriented sociology. It is maintained that Schutzian sociology provides conceptual tools to investigate subjective experience of inequality in everyday life, as well as guidelines for the empirical approach of that experience in different cultural and historical contexts.

 

Keywords: Inequality, Discrimination, Subjectivity, Everyday life, Phenomenological Sociology

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Processes of social mobility of the professionals of socioeconomic strata means of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago of Chile. A study from the dimension of the Recognition Socio-Labour

 

Héctor Rivera Vergara

 

The present article proposes to investigate from a qualitative approach, the influence of the recognition partner-labour in the processes of social mobility of the professionals of socioeconomic strata means of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago of Chile. The motivation for investigating this phenomenon is born to observe the difficulties that presents a group of Chilean professionals, characterised for being first familiar generation in obtaining a university title, in his mechanisms of insertion and integration to the labor field, which have not been accompanied of the recognition socio-labor expected in the exert e of his functions, experiencing according to his own affirmations, a feeling of social descent and a feeling of frustration and insecurity in his professional capacities. Of the same way, the interest for tackling this study from the dimension of the recognition socio- labor, is due to that the revised theory on social mobility, it refers mostly to quantifications in the distribution of the economic and social welfare of a person or group in a determinate time, delivering results very notable and useful, but that do not tackle the significant dimension of the problem.

 

Keywords: Social Mobility, Recognition Socio-Labor, Social Mobility Frustrated

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Reproduction conditions of labour power as form of the specificity of capital accumulation in Argentina: concrete evidences since the mid-70’s

 

Fernando Cazón,  Damián Kennedy y Facundo Lastra

 

This article is framed in the debate regarding the relationship between the differentiation of labor power’s conditions of reproduction and the characteristics of the productive structure in Latin America. We analyze the evolution of this relationship in Argentina, by recognizing the specificity of this country in the global capital accumulation. Firstly, we describe the form in which the new international division of labor is expressed inside this country and we conclude that it implies the need for new compensation for the productive lag of the national economy: the sale of labor power below its value. Secondly, we present evidence on the relationship between the specificity of national accumulation and reproduction of the labor power, which allows us to conclude that a portion of the Argentinean working class is consolidated in its role of relative surplus population.

Keywords: labor power, relative surplus population, economic cycle, land rent - Argentina

 

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The “Cabildo” Has Opened: The Front of Unions State and the Fall of Ricardo de Aparici as a Resistance Gestation. 1987-1990

 

Mauro Berenagan

 

Since 1987, in Jujuy Province began a social and workers struggle that generated the organizational conditions for the “Resistance” throughout decade. The Front of Unions State, with its leading figure of Carlos “El Perro” Santillan, were the main support of a protest cycle that provoke the fall of eight governors in ten years. In the present paper, I intend to inquire the begining of that “organic crisis”, reconstructing with primary sources and with the help of some gramscianan tools one event  that has not been fairly studied by historiography: the Open “Cabildo” of 1990. The event were the consecuences of a multisectoral workers impulse and a new ways of protest. With more than 25.000 people gathered in La Tablada Stadium, the “Cabildo” provoked the fall of Governor Ricardo de Aparici, and it assumed the characteristics of the resistance against the neoliberal policies in the country.

Keywords: Jujuy, open cabildo, Carlos El Perro Santillán, neoliberalism, front of unions state

 

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The Golden Age in the representations of ex workers from the Swift meat plant of Berisso

 

Eleonora Bretal

 

During my research about the ex workers´s modes of remembering their labour past in the Swift meat plant of Berisso and of representing the history of the meat industry workers, I distinguished the construction of the following native periodization: the english period, the military period and the closed Swift period. I interviewed thirty (30) ex workers between the years 2010 and 2013. In this text I analyze their representations about the first of the three periods. I explain who the english were to the ex workers and I show their appreciations of them. I enquire which aspects organize the idealization of the english period as a Golden Age and I explore the cracks and contradictions undercovered by the nostalgia for the desired past. I identify how the golden past is configured not only in relation to the present (with the utopias projected to a near future) but also in connection with a critical past to the ex workers. I hold the idea that the english period is part of a selective tradition, which set aside another pasts, characteristics and experiencies.

Keywords: working class, social representations, golden age

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The value of work in the policies of "Social and Solidarity Economy". An approach to the conditions of production and reproduction of their recipient

 

Sofía vitali

 

This article deals with social and labor policies framed in development called "Social and Solidarity Economy" from which the "work culture" and "decent work" as part of its discursive basis is recovered. These proposals contain various meaning around the work, giving rise to new forms of work and organization, as well as forms of linkage between state actors and beneficiaries.

Beneficiaries who participate in the various state programs of the Secretariat for Solidarity Economy of the Municipality of Rosario perform different productive activities as a defensive response to the retraction of the formal labor market suffered by them during the 90's and the 2001 crisis.

In this sense, we want to analyze the value of work , stressing the formal provisions of these policies from the analysis of the daily production of different experiences, focusing on the conditions of production and reproduction of these sectors.

Keywords: socio-productive policies, social economy, labour, value

 

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Labour, trade unions and contestation to large infraestructural projects in the Brazilian Amazon 

 

José Ricardo Ramalho

Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

 

From the 1960s onwards, the Brazilian Amazon witnessed a new cycle of economic expansion. This expansion redefined the development strategies for the region and had significant repercussion of the environment and local social groups. This texts analyses one of the projects implemented since then, the Grande Carajás Program, which stimulated the settlement of pig iron producing industries throughout the Estrada de Ferro Carajás, and of metallurgical plants in the municipalities of Marabá (State of Pará) and Açailandia (State of Maranhao). The article shows the dual impact of these policies. On the one hand it increased regional economic activity, the size of cities and towns, and created new jobs. On the other, it significantly affected the precarization of labour, environmental degradation and offenses to human rights. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of the labour markets through the actions of the metalworkers’ union and other social movements in the municipalities of Açailandia, especially the struggles around industrial unemployment and campaigns against ‘slave labour’.

Key Words: Amazon; Precarization; Labour; Development

 

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The multiple faces of precarious work and trade unionism: the brazilian experience 

 

Fernando Ramalho Martins

Jacob Carlos Lima

 

The article discusses the precarization of labour in Brazil in the current context, with a consideration for the historical characteristics of the labour market in which not more than 50% of workers have received social security benefits and experienced formal working conditions. Precarization should be understood as a process which manifests itself in a diversity of forms, without been uniformed or absolute. New occupations can incorporate important rights, which does not make them less precarious from the point of view of working conditions. The processes of outsourcing and others can also be coupled with access to rights without making the tasks themselves less precarious. The article incorporates empirical evidence from research on the service sectors (banks-- information technology--clothing industry and automobile industry).

 

Key words: precarization; Brazil; trade unions; services

 

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Recent transformations in labour process at the Pampas agricultural production: limits and potentialities of the ‘soybeanization’ process 

 

Gastón Caligaris

 

This paper examines the recent material transformations that took place in the agrarian labour process in the Pampas in order to provide empirical evidence and elements for the analysis to the existing debate within the agrarian studies regarding the production and social implications of those transformations. For this purpose, an analysis on the so-called biotech revolution in agricultural production is provided. Then, we examine the case of agricultural production in the Pampas. Finally, we briefly consider the implications of these changes for the historical course of agriculture production in general and in the Pampas in particular. The main conclusions arrived at are: a) that the so-called biotech revolution has involved a very limited transformation of natural constraints that characterize agricultural production and, consequently, it is still far from overcome the barriers that historically limited the economic development of this productive sector; b) that the material changes occurred in the labour process related to biotechnology have a generalist character in the Pampas; c) that these transformations are inherently connected with the development of chemical and mechanical aspects of the labour process, such as the extensive and intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers and dissemination of zero tillage technique; d) that the mentioned changes in the process of agricultural labour in the Pampas involved a substantial increase in the minimum scale of production and, on account of this presumably, in the scale of agrarian capital.

 

Keywords: Agrarian labour process; Biotech revolution; Pesticides; Fertilizers; Zero Tillage

 

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The role of pluriactivity in the persistence of the dairy family farming in the Cuenca Abasto Sur of Buenos Aires 

 

Patricio Vertiz

 

Over the last decades the dairy production of Argentina evidences great modifications, related to strong processes of technological change and concentration of the production, leading to a restructuring of the dairy complex with a negative impact over the minor strata of production. In this regard, one of the strategies persistence of small units has historically been the pluriactivity, which involves the combination of farming and non-farming activities, inside and outside the farms.

The aim of this work is to identify the diversity of types of pluriactivity and its importance over the persistence of the dairy family farming in Chascomús and Lezama (province of Buenos Aires). We also aim to specify which types of pluriactivity are predominant, the reasons that lead producers to implement this strategy and the functions it performs, establishing connections with other works related as well.

The methodology of investigation consists of the analysis of semi-structured interviews to key informants and dairy farmers, combining with the revision of agricultural censuses, scientific research and technical reports about the dairy production in general and about the area of study in particular.

The results of this work show the presence of the following forms of pluriactivity: the manufacture of dairy products, the work outside the farms and marketing, being the first two types the most predominant. Generally, they include mostly agricultural occupations which belong to the most traditional type. Regarding the role played by pluriactivity, it seems that the combination of activities is associated with functions of persistence or reproduction either than accumulation of capital. The conclusion arises that due to the low production scales of the establishments analyzed, and to the low production rates in some cases, it is likely that these units could not  avoid the combination of these activities to persist in their production.

 

Key words: pampean family farming; pluriactivity; strategies of persistence; dairy production

 

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Characterization of family farming based on a rural development programme: the case of the PRODERNEA recipients (1999-2007)

 

Marcos Urcola

 

In the current debate on family farming, opposing views arise regarding who the involved subjects are, the type of support they should be given and the role that this sector should perform in the regional development. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this debate with the analysis of information collected in the framework of the implementation of a rural development programme. The Rural Development Project for the Northeastern Provinces of Argentina (PRODERNEA in Spanish, 1999-2007) was taken as a reference in order to contribute with empirical elements regarding the characterization and identification of family farming and to generate new questions and hypothesis on the type of political instruments targeted at the sector. The selection of this programme enabled the concrete study of the family producers identified as recipients of its actions, and offered the possibility of reflecting upon their main problems and operational tensions. This paper presents a methodological framework with a qualitative approach and a flexible design based on case studies and the tradition of the Grounded Theory, implementing the analysis and systematization of primary documentary sources and open informal interviews to those in charge of the technical management of the programme and the organizations of producers-beneficiaries.

 

Key words: Family farming; Rural development; PRODERNEA

 

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Class and Informality in the Class Structure of Argentina: Families, employment trajectories and class identity among formal and informal proletarians (2007).

 

Rodolfo Elbert

 

The prevailing class analysis of Latin American societies defines informality as a class cleavage that divides the working class. In this view, labor fragmentation has created structural divisions among workers, which are translated into different life experiences, collective action dynamics and material interests of formal and informal workers (Portes, 1985; Portes y Hoffman, 2003). This article is part of a broader research aimed at testing the “class differences” hypothesis through a study of the cultural, organizing and structural links between the formal and the informal working class (Elbert, 2013). Do formal and informal workers self-identify as part of the same social class? What is the effect of ties across the informality border in the class identity of individuals in the working class? I use survey data from the “Encuesta Nacional de Estratificación Social” (CEDOP-UBA). In the study I provide evidence of strong structural connections between the formal and the informal proletariat, which include past work experiences and family ties across the formal-informal boundary. This confirms that workers’ class self-identification is a consequence not only of their structural position but also of their lived experience.

 

Key words: informality; social structure; class identity; Argentina

 

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Latin American trade unionism at a new crossroads. From the centrality of the State to multinational corporations

Juan Montes Cató

Bruno Dobrusin

 

The trade union movement in Argentina and Brazil is facing a new crossroads. The neodevelopmentalist governments of the last decade strengthened the presence of the State, although this have proven insufficient to shift the productive structure and influence the balance of capital-labour relations. The intervention of transnational capital forces labour to reconsider its actions, historically conditioned by a corporatist outlook centered on the State. The contributions of Nicos Poulantzas allow for rethinking labour’s relation with the State and debating the strategic shifts that this new context requires

 

Key Words: Labour movement; Corporativism;  State;  Multinationals

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What's new in the Argentine unionism? Labor relations and union reconfiguration during kirchneristas governments
 

   Marcelo Delfini y Patricia Ventrici

 

The governance process of the last decade had as its central element overcoming the biggest crisis that Argentina underwent, in which economic dynamics enabled the creation of employment and overcoming the high levels of unemployment that accompanied the Argentine development since the mid- 90. The decade of the recovery of employment levels, the vitality of collective bargaining and increased labor unrest again placed the union player at the center of the political scene. In this paper we analyze the dynamics of association in Argentina in the last decade from three dimensions of its institutional practice. After raising an analytical description of the economic process context and its impact on the world of work, we address the prevailing logic of collective bargaining in the period, the strategies of alliances and conflicts made by the unions and the development of union representation in the workplace. The first two, analyze the policies of the leaders of the organizations, the third tries to delve into the internal political dynamics of the unions putting eyes on the shop floor.

 

Key words: Syndicalism; Labor Relations; Kirchnerism

 

 

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Social conflict, cooperativism and precarious labor. The case of Cooperativa Cartoneros del Sur in Bahía Blanca (2007- 2014)

Pablo Ariel Becher

Juan Manuel Martín

 

The present study is aimed to characterize and analyze the socio-economic relations in the solid urban waste collection process performed by social actors involved in a cooperative of cartoneros  in the city of Bahía Blanca, and the struggles they have had to carry on in order to work in that condition.

Fundamentally, this work will emphasize on the origin of this kind of entrepreneurship since the year 2007 to the present, evidencing the objective conditions of cooperative work and its relationship with informal and precarious work. The qualitative and quantitative methodologies express the correlation among different variables that allow us to get closer to comprehending the functioning of cooperatives within the net of garbage collection and the role of cartoneros.

 

Keywords: Cooperatives of cartoneros- Labor conflicts- Informal economy

 

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“Because I work, i work well”: job trajectories and perceptions in the narrations of workers residing in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires.

 

Guillermina Comas

María Rosa Cicciari

María Berenice Rubio

 

The article reconstructs labor trajectories of workers residing in a segregated urban area from the third cordon of Buenos Aires from a biographic perspective.

Situations such as obtain a registered job, a formal job change to an informal one, losing a job, or remain in an informal job, may change the subjective assessments of those individuals. On the basis of the narrations of workers, about constitutive job -present and past- actions, the intention of the article is to account the built sense from the interpretations of the actors about their itineraries.

The analysis answer the questions about the organizations ways the perceptions and actions assumed at the trajectories development, characterized by horizontal or descendent movements in contexts of social vulnerability.

Qualitative analysis was performed by a set of interviews about their labour situation before 2014. The narrations were analyzed with Atlas ti.  

 

Keywords: Labor trajectories; Biographic narrations; Labour informality

 

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Production of agricultural machinery in Argentina: Comparative Analysis of the Dynamics of National conglomerates and Global Value Chains.

 

Federico Langard

 

The work presented here is based on the doctoral thesis Consolidación de cadenas globales de valor y desarrollo de clusters locales: el caso de la maquinaria agrícola en Argentina (Consolidation of global value chains and development of local clusters: the case of the agricultural machinery in Argentina), defended on December 2014. This article presents some productive configurations, adopted by the production of certain agricultural equipment. Configurations linked to schemes in which transnational capital participates in some way. The analysis is based on comparing the segment of seeders manufacturing companies, a cluster of domestic capital SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises), harvesters and tractors producing companies, industry directly linked to transnational capital. Additionally, it goes into detail on the study of this industry transnational nexus with the analysis of two in-depths interviews with two foreign firms producing in the country. In this way, some behavior characteristics of the transnational corporations (TNCs) in the agricultural machinery production and in Argentina are exhibited.

 

Keywords: agricultural machinery industry in Argentina, Transnational Corporations, Global Value Chains

 

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Labour market and trade unionism in restructured agricultural productions in Argentina

Guillermo Neiman

The restructuring of agriculture modifies the structure and functioning of labor markets in the sector, putting labor unrest in a renewed context and raising other challenges for unionism. Labor unions´ practices among workers in agriculture have been as much episodic and reserved for specific regions or productions. In the context of the current process of restructuring and globalization particularly for some agricultural and food productions, it is possible to identify a growing labor unrest, the emergence of some new mostly local organizations and the deployment of union actions. State intervention in certain circumstances related to the labor market and conflict also is novel.This article analyzes for the case of Argentina, recent expressions of labor unrest and union actions in agriculture and its relationship with current labor markets and public policies aimed to regulate these markets and to improve workers´ labor and living conditions.

 

Key words: Agriculture; Labor; Unionization; Labor conflicts

 

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Union density and representation of trade union centers in Brazil

 

Iram Jácome Rodrigues

Mario Henrique Guedes Ladosky

Jonas Tomazi Bicev

 

This article discusses the participation and representation of trade unions and trade union confederations in Brazil during the recent decades. Using data from the National House Survey (PNAD-IBGE) for the period 1992-2014, the text traces a profile of unionized labour in Brazil by region and gender. Furthermore, using affiliation data to trade union confederations from the Ministry of Labour (MTE), the text discusses the main aspects regarding participation and representation of the confederations. The assertions regarding representation are based on the number of affiliated members by sector, the trade union density by economic activity and by region. A caveat is necessary in that the databases differ from each other in terms of methodological process, but the data converges in terms of the main issues related to trade union density in Brazil

 

Key Words: Trade Unions; Labour Confederations; Brazil; Trade Union Density; Workers

 

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A proyect for the Argentinian Nation. The Rivadavia’s politics and the Nation-

 

Santiago Rossi Delaney

 

In this article, we inquiry the social basis of Rivadavia’s politics, considering the elaboration and conformation of a national project which tried to include all the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata in one political structure.

Our national historiography focused on the reforms and transformations of the period: the clerical, electoral and military reforms, also some important resolutions such as the enfiteusis and the Baring Brother’s loan in 1824. However, there’s no a balance sheet of the Rivadavia’s politics, which allow us to understand the social character of the Unitarismo’s project. We therefore try to reveal if there was an organic connection between the different politics, considering the enfiteusis, the Baring Brother’s loan and the war against Brazil as the main steps of the project.

In regard to enfiteusis, we will use the information of the leasing of lands of the Escribanía General of the Buenos Aires’ Government, with the purpose of analyze the consequences of its application in that province and the attempt of imposing the enfiteusis all around the nation. Attending to Baring Brother’s loan, we compare the incomes and expenses as a result of its contract, with the State’s budget of the Cuentas Mayores de Caja y Contaduría de Buenos Aires, in order to calculate the importance of the loan and its cancellation regarding to the money under control of the Estate. Finally, we will refer to the War against Brazil, a conflict which tested the national project. We will analyze the Listas de Revistas and the expenses destined to war, in order to enquiry the Estate efforts in the conflict and its importance in the destiny of the national project.

 

Keywords: Emphyteusis; Baring Brothers; War Brasil; State

 

 

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From above and from below. Governments, ruling class and labor and social movements in the redesign of the Latin-American integration

Julián Kan

At the beginning of the 21st century the Latin America countries left aside the commercialist perspective concerning their area of entailment, giving way to a repoliticization of the regional integration. This occurred due to the fact that some governments began to question, in major or minor depth, the political and economic neoliberal scene of the decade of nineteen-ninety. Nevertheless, from a critical outlook on the projects of regional integration like the MERCOSUR and the negotiations for the FTAA and of the international relations in general, we understand that the decisions of the governments in foreign and regional policy are in keeping with the most general social relations. In consequence, we propose to analyze here the relationship between civil society and regional integration, approaching stances and actions of diverse fractions and sectors of the dominant and subaltern classes which had influence on the redesign of the Latin-American integration. The hypothesis that guides this paper is that that redesign, in particular the reorientation towards the MERCOSUR and the rejection of the FTAA, were a result of both the challenging "from above" by the questioning of the dominant local classes, and also of the challenging "from below", that is to say, of the labor and social movements of the region.

Keywords: work; emerging factors; suffering-happiness.

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The dreams of reason: crisis of meaning and egoistic suicide

 Alejandro BIALAKOWSKY y Agustín MOLINA y VEDIA

This article seeks to investigate the theoretical and analytical consequences that the study of egoistic suicide has on Emile Durkheim's perspective. In order to do that, it begins with a reconstruction of the distinction between egoism and anomie, highlighting the importance of egoism, often downplayed by secondary literature, and its relation to the crisis of meaning. With this objective in mind, the difference between passive and active social spheres is pointed as a key element to understand that conceptual pair. In addition, the social genesis of the quest for meaning is traced in the author’s postulates, leading to the study of the historical development of religions and of the individual manifestations of egoism (melancholy, languor, solipsism). In third place, it studies how the historical development of reason points to the emergence of a symbolic idealism linked to lack of integration resulted from a series of processes: the disarticulation between thought and action and between sophisticated beliefs and practices; the loss of a durable object (representational and 'mundane') and of a totalizing representation; and the absence of common social objectives. Lastly, the article examines how sociology, as science of the social, can intervene on pathologies related to the 'dreams of reason' characteristic of egoistic currents (passive and solipsist; active and destructive). Thus, it outlines the different attempts made by the author to find, in modernity, new ways to articulate representations of the totality of society with daily practices, capable of providing meaning to rationalized individuals. In this way, the role of the state, of collective rituals, ideals of humanity and patriotism can be reread in light of the questions and theoretical proposals that are at play in the analysis of egoistic suicide.

Keywords: Egoistic Suicide, Meaning, Symbolic Idealism, Totality, Durkheim

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 Local potential for integral approach of child labour in partido de general Pueyrredon, Argentina

 María Eugenia LABRUNÉE, María M. LAGUYÁS, M. Eugenia GOÑI

The aim is to expose the conditions of social protection system intended for children at the local level to effectively address situations of child labor detected in the Municipality of General Pueyrredon. The importance of social dialogue processes as a framework for recognizing and positioning the issues in public and social agenda is emphasized here.

After a theoretical section about the current look of childhood social policies Child Labour, its causes and the current regulations for the eradication and prevention of this problem, as well as promoting and protecting the rights of children and adolescents, presents a diagnosis of child labor situations, mainly those more relevant economic activities linked to the party. Then delves into a description, from a comprehensive view of all the institutional frame or promotion and protection system of rights of children and adolescents, their relevance, responsibilities, opportunities and actions against child labor, protocols force and its effective implementation, as well as commitments from all areas.

This development is the result of a task systematization of information in the party, a specific diagnosis generated from ILO, MTSS, and the Municipality of General Pueyrredon and systematization of primary qualitative information about institutional frame having interference the possibility of providing answers to the problem. Is part of a process of dialogue and social construction that takes place in the town, the Interagency Committee for the Eradication of Child Labour and Protection of Adolescent labor in the Municipality of General Pueyrredon

Keywords: Children Labour, Social Protection System, Mar del Plata - General Pueyrredon, Social dialogue

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Women participation at Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero. Characteristics of a growing feminization

 Noelia ARANDA

In this paper it proposes to describe in numbers the picture that represents the participation of women within the Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero. For this it uses the analysis of statistical data in order to show a comparative scenario on the evolution of the University population by sex for the years 2000 to 2010.

The study responds to the related concern with carry out a research allowing to gain insight into approximate with respect to participation women within the University, its advances and setbacks. This problem has been studied by various theories which enhance the meaning of such participation, since it is considered as a segment particularly of women who, even with certain difficulties, have managed to gain access to university education. The results show us that this University responds to trends in which manifests a continuous growth of the inclusion of women in the University area marking a high prominence and while persist differential elections marked by gender stereotypes, increasingly are more those who show preferences for areas of study which were traditionally considered as male; reached even better achievements.

We have then here to establish a panoramic and critical vision in this regard, to strengthen the analysis and understanding of the issues supported the review of statistical data.

Keywords: Gender; Education; feminine participation; University

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Territorios de violencia patriarcal: doce años de femicidios en Santiago del Estero (2002-2014)

 Cecicilia CANEVARI y Rosa ISAC

This paper presents an examination of the phenomenon of extreme violence towards women (and transwomen) in Santiago del Estero. Towards this end a matrix of data is analyzed that contains the information of women who were murdered, and the characteristics of the crimes. The sources of information for the crimes are two local newspapers. To make a comparison to national rates of crime, data published since 2008 by La Casa del Encuentro (ONG) is presented. Santiago del Estero has the highest rate of female murders in the whole nation, doubling the national rate. Through this comparison of empirical evidence a deeper understanding of the problem is sought. Also, the existing legal framework and public policies of the three branches of government concerning violence towards women are given. From within Santiago’s historic structural context some hypotheses are proposed, and finally an approach is set forth using feminist theories that are key to understanding the patriarchal foundations that sustain the subordination of women in our societies.

Key words: femicide- patriarchal violence - Santiago del Estero- femicide rate.

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The wage-productivity relationship: wage incentives in collective agreements

Adriana MARSHALL

In this article I analyze productivity-based wage incentives included in collective agreements signed in the Argentinean manufacturing industry during 2003-2012. First, the long-term comparative evolution of real wages and labor productivity in Argentina is examined to provide the historical context to wage-productivity bargaining. Next, precedents to wage-productivity bargaining in this country are discussed. Third, I focus in 2003-2012 to analyze how frequently were productivity-based wage incentives included in collective agreements, the incidence of the incentives based on individual performance and that of those based on collective productivity, the level (industry-wide or firm) at which they had been convened, and the degree of specification of the method to calculate productivity and the wage premium. Last, the limitations hindering the evaluation of the effects, at different levels, of the examined productivity-based wage incentives are discussed. Results suggest that those wage incentives were negotiated predominantly at firm level, which permitted a high degree of specification of the methodology for calculating the wage premium, and were most often based on collective rather than individual productivity, and therefore their potential for preserving or increasing the wage share in the enterprises´ value added would be greater than that for fostering wage differentiation within each firm. Nonetheless, this form of wage bargaining was confined to a small number of firms within each manufacturing industry, despite the fact that the signing trade unions operate in a relatively large spectrum of industrial activities. This limited diffusion would derive in part from the restrictions faced by wage-productivity bargaining in high inflation regimes such as that characterizing the Argentinean economy.

Keywords: wage incentives, collective agreements, collective bargaining, wages, labor productivity
 

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"White Women" in Corographic Commission. A fabling reading.

 Pascale MOLINER

"Mujeres blancas" (white women) is an image of the Corographic Commission of Agustín Codazzi in Colombia. The image represents, in the mid-nineteenth century, two light-skinned women dressed in European style, and a dark-skinned woman covered by a large mantle, the latter located at the back, and looking in the opposite direction. Speaking of a "fabling reading”, the author uses a narrative methodology that goes beyond the explicit content of the work to bridge gender, class, race and sexuality. This ancient image is used as a "pretext" to interrogate sociocultural dimensions that are still active today. The author questions, particularly, the role of the unnamed black woman in the process of construction of the white femininity and as a disguised erotic figure. She brings her presence as a hidden object from the white men’s desire, as a disobedient servant for the madams of the bourgeois houses, and as the mother-nurse excluded from the first infants’ erotic emotions. The conclusion of the article is a reflection about race performance as a performance of the ruling class in the Colombian society.

Keywords: Colombia, hegemonic femininity, bleaching, hybridity, race melancholy, servitude

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 Tuberculosis, suffering, and everyday life in vulnerable and slums neighborhoods in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

María Victoria Castilla

 Based on the preliminary results of an ethnographic research have gone through since early 2010 and it is clear from other previous research, this paper analyzes and discusses the logic of care, suffer and suffer from tuberculosis in subjects living in slums and vulnerable, given the set of relations established between bodies, State and the power dynamics embedded in the daily lives of these neighborhoods. The methodological approach used in the research is the ethnographic method including in-depth interviews and participant observation in various neighborhoods of AMBA, many of whom have not shared the specific urban design characteristic settlement locally called "villas”.

Key words: tuberculosis; everyday life; marginalization; vulnerability; power

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