Trabajo y Sociedad
Sociology of work, cultural studies and sociological/literary narratives
Nº 1,  2,  3, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 8, 9, 10,  11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21y 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 y 29 Winter 2017 -  ISSN 1514-6871


Work and Society (Trabajo y Sociedad)

Sociology of work, cultural studies and sociological/literary narratives


Work and Society (Trabajo y Sociedad) is a peer-reviewed social science journal. The journal was created in 1999 and it is published twice a year by the Department of Sociology and Research Institute for Social Development (INDES) at the National University of Santiago del Estero (UNSE), Argentina. It is thematically, theoretically, and methodologically open, but it focuses mainly on the areas of sociology of work, cultural studies and the relationship between sociological and literary narratives. Its Editorial board is comprised of scholars from UNSE and CONICET, its Advisory board includes recognized national and international experts.


Num. 29


Num. 28 Summer 2017
Num. 27 Winter 2016
Num. 26 Summer 2016
Num. 25 Winter 2015
Num. 24 Summer 2015
Num. 23 Winter 2014
Num. 22 Summer 2014
Num 21 Winter 2013
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Num. 19
Winter 2012
Num 18
 Summer 2012

Num. 17

Winter 2011

Num. 16

Summer 2011

Num. 15

Num. 14

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Num. 10 Num.9

Num. 8

Num. 7

Num. 6 Num. 5 Num. 4 Num. 3 Num. 2 Num. 1

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 Num 17, vol. XV, Winter, 2011






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Num. 15, vol. XIV, Fall, 2010

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Num. 14, vol. XIII, Summer 2010

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Num. 13, vol. XII, Spring 2009

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Num. 12, vol. XI, Fall 2009

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Number 11, vol. X, Spring 2008

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Number 10, vol. IX, Fall, 2008

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 Number 9, vol. IX, Winter, 2007

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Number 8, vol. VIII, Fall, 2006

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Number 7, vol. VII, junio septiembre, 2005

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Number 6, vol. VI, junio septiembre, 2003

Number 5, vol. V, sept. 2002  Abstracts

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Number 4, vol. IV, 2002  Abstracts

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Number 1, vol. I  Abstracts

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Structural Change and Economic Development in Santiago del Estero. Period 1994/2007.


 Jorge Silveti

Noelia Gurmedi

Rita Salvatierra


One of the features that distinguish the type of truncated transition in which some underdeveloped economies such as those of Latin America are located is represented by the structural heterogeneity, the result of processes of transformation that achieved high productivity deployments in enclaves - detached from the internal market but integrated And a vast productive network that does not reach adequate levels of competitiveness, in the context of an economy that is still based on its natural resources. Santiago del Estero in the productive, is integrated as a marginal region of peripheral capitalism, where the process of productive modernization did not at any moment become a factor of change.

In the period under study, which begins during the beginning of the cycle of the convertibility boom (1994) and culminates with the end of the recovery phase of the model implemented after the fall of this plan (2007), Santiago del Estero recorded a rate of Growth of the Gross Provincial Product above the national rate. This was mainly due to the trend break in 2004.

The study shows that structural change led to an acceleration of the growth rate of all activities, but labor market deficiencies, based mainly on a weak industrial sector, prevented breaking with low level equilibria. Deforestation of the rural sector, which does not manage to be absorbed by the manufacturing sector, generates a continuous tension in the labor market. The services sector then acted as a decompression valve and grew disproportionately, in informal activities and in public employment.

Keywords: economic development, production structure, structural change, neostructuralism.


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 The Practice of a Marginalized Medicine in Argentina: The Case of Medical Homeopaths

 Betina Freidin

Homeopathy has been practiced in Argentinean medical circles for about two centuries. Since late 19th century, organized Homeopaths have mobilized to achieve recognition by health regulators and to elevate the status of the discipline in the profession. Although there is a longstanding tradition of postgraduate education imparted by Schools of Homeopathy, the discipline remains excluded from the curriculum of medical schools and only exceptionally postgraduate education in Homeopathy has been supported by private or national universities. Homeopathic medicine in Argentina is a paradigmatic case of a medical heterodoxy that has been the object of active and passive forms of intra-professional marginalization. In this article, we firstly present an overview of the development and global diffusion of the discipline, followed by a review of the contemporary controversies around it. Secondly, we briefly summarize the history of Homeopathy in the country, and the mobilization of homeopathic associations to gain official recognition, pointing to its ambivalences. Finally, we present how medical homeopaths view the constraints and opportunities to practice Homeopathy in Argentina.
Homeopathy, medical profession, heterodoxies, intra-professional marginalization

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Expanding the meaning of work: the Social Income with Work-Argentina Works Program as a limited employer of last resort

 Agustín Mario

This article analyzes the Social Income with Work (PRIST), of the Argentina Works line of social policy, implemented in August of 2009. First, we describe the transformations in matter of social policy that took place during the Kirchner-Era emphasizing the circumstances that led to the implementation of the program under analysis. Then, we examine the PRIST´s institutional design and evaluate some data from the Social Development Ministry (MDS) that allow to account for the number of beneficiaries, their characteristics, the activities undertaken as part of the program, the response of the beneficiaries, and the relation between program participation and the insertion in the labor market. The PRIST constitutes a partial or limited employer of last resort (ELR) program; in that sense, we then compare the ELR theoretical proposal with the PRIST. Finally, we discuss the main objections that the literature has done regarding the design and implementation of the program. Using the PRIST experience, we show how the ELR can generate employment –y, thus, provide income. Moreover, the PRIST experience shows that an ELR program can contribute to the re-definition of the meaning of work, by recognizing that certain forms of work, unrecognized by the private market, are socially useful.
Key words:
Argentina works, employer of last resort, work

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Global Crisis and technological change in the steel industry in Argentina and the World (1970-1990)

 Emiliano Mussi

This article will show how the economic crisis was processed in the steel industry in the years 1970-1990 in Argentina and the world. The crisis updated the possibility of incorporating technology. Those capitals that could incorporate this technology on time, achieved greater competitiveness and tackle the economic crisis. Japan and South Korea were at the forefront of this incorporation, and argentine companies Acindar and Siderca. In contrast, although for different reasons, the United States and argentinianSomisa state company, were relegated.
steel - technological change - innovation – Argentina

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Building labor citizenship in the Mexican northern border


Marlene Solís

 Margarita Ávalos

In this article it is of our interest to analyze the role civil society has had in the construction of labor citizenship, understanding that the principle of recoverableness of labor rights is a necessary condition for democratic life inside and out of labor spaces. Recognition of labor rights as human rights has been a long fight, so now a day, when we face a new labor reform and unstable and precarious labor markets, it is of particular relevance. In order to understand the mechanisms of intervention of civil society in the resolution of labor conflicts, as a fundamental element to advance in the construction of citizenship from a labor point of view, we analyze the Ollin Calli's discourses and practices in the resistance of workers from a transnational factory, and the forms of fight that has stimulated the Coalición Pro Justicia de las Maquiladoras along the northern border of Mexico.
labor citizenship, civil society, maquiladoras, labor rights, recoverableness, northern border of Mexico

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Workers and popular resistance in Tucumán in the beginnings of the dictatorship of Onganía: murder of Hilda Molina Guerrero and popular uprising in Bella Vista

Silvia Nassif

In the first months of 1967, the province of Tucumán, Argentina, was sunken in a deep economic and social crisis. In the very early stages of the dictatorship of the self-proclaimed Revolución Argentina headed by the de facto president general Juan Carlos Onganía a decree in August 1966 declared the intervention and closure of sugar mills in this province. Despite a significant portion of national trade unions depositing their expectations in the dictatorship, local sugar workers at the Tucuman Sugar Industry Workers Federation (FOTIA) organised actions to protest this situation.

It was in this political context that in January 1967 Hilda Molina Guerrero, wife of a laid-off sugar worker and member of the female branch of the Peronist party, was murdered just a few meters away from the Bella Vista Trade Union premises. This crime in the sugar town of Bella Vista gave way to a true “pueblada” (uprising), the first one to take place since the establishment of the dictatorship. From that moment on, Hilda remained int the popular consciousness as a symbol of the struggles of this period and she is a part of the collective memory to this day. However, and despite its historical importance, little is known about the facts that led to this event.

This work reconstruct the circumstances in which Hilda Molina Herrero was killed by a member of the police force, just as the union, FOTIA, was carrying out a coordinated plan to prevent the closure of the mills by the dictatorship. We demonstrate the lack of veracity of the official version released by the Police Headquarters of the Tucuman province and we analyse the full relevance of this event.

Keywords: Hilda Molina Guerrero, FOTIA, labour movement, self-appointed dictatorship “Argentina Revolution”, “pueblada”, popular uprising.

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Contributions of Latin American critical thinking for the study of the class structure and social mobility

José Javier Rodriguez de la Fuente

The study of the links between the processes of development, modernization, social stratification and mobility, was in the center of the postwar discussion on the causes and consequences of changes in the socio-occupational structure. Much of the research that linked these topics were approached from the perspective of modernization theory, under the orthodox consensus structural - functionalist. However, the universalist and evolutionist claim of that paradigm, was widely criticized by other contemporary trends that also theorized about aspects of development in the specific context of Latin America. Thus a reference may be made to both the pioneering, continuous and changing studies of Prebisch, under the orbit of ECLAC structuralism; different approaches including in the so-called "dependency theories" and the analysis of the heterogeneous nature of the economic and social structure of the peripheral countries.

In this way, the work proposes to trace elements of these critical approaches that are part of what might be termed "Latin American critical thinking" that were central in discussions produced between the 50s and 70s, for use in the understanding of the processes of structuring classes and the study of social mobility in the Latin American context of the beginning of the 21st century.

Keywords: development, dependency, structural heterogeneity,  class structure, social mobility, Latin America.


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(Re)thinking the concept of reflexivity in the field work context

Mariana Tello

This article approaches the complexities of ethnographic practice as lived theory (Peirano, 2008) and delves into a concept that begun taking centrality in social sciences in the 1980s and still provokes debates nowadays: reflexivity. Revising the author's own professional trajectory within the anthropology of violence and sociopolitical conflicts, the article inquires how a reflexive disposition is acquired and transmitted in the construction of ethnographic data. Finally, the article presents an examination of the political, ethical and epistemological tensions which intersect the researcher's perspective in the process of knowledge production.

Keywords: reflexivity, social sciences, ethnography, political violence.

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Culture and social movements: interpretations of social protest in employees, recovered companies employees and traders of AMBA

Jorge Castro Rubel, Matías Artese y Hernán Tapia

In this article we propose to conduct an inquiry on the culture of protest and social conflict in three groups of different insertion in social and productive structure: employees, recovered companies employees and traders from Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We carry out a survey through which we explore various aspects of representations generated by the protest and social conflict, digging through various scenarios of formats, demands and subjects involved. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the culture of protest and conflict in each of the analyzed personifications.
conflict, culture, employees, cooperative members, traders.

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Social Representations about the the Universal Child Allowance (AUH) among peripheral urban lower classes

María Maneiro

In this article the Universal Child Allowance (AUH) is analyzed from a historical itinerary point of view regarding social security in Argentina. Following this line of thought, the article begins with a brief overview regarding the process of understanding social protections as an establishment with crisis due to the importance of informality work. After that, AUH is described: requirements, possibilities and difficulties. The originality of this presentation is based on the idea of investigating the social representations that the peripheral urban lower classes elaborate around the social security, in general and the AUH, in particular. For this purpose, four cases were selected that correspond to diverse socio-occupational trajectories, under the hypothesis that this prism can be useful to analyze different meanings about our object. Finally, with this substrate, various representative profiles around social segurity are put into scene.  The suggested profiles are: the exclusive employee, the proactive worker, the ascetic beneficiary and the claimant citizen.

The empirical base used on this presentation is a series of semi-structured interviews conducted during the month of November 2014 in Buenos Aires.

Keywords: social security- Informality work, work, universal Child Allowance, social Policy, social representations

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Treatment of Production bodies in the labor courts. The case of the fishing industry. Mar del Plata, Argentina

Romina Denisse Cutuli

In this paper the process of progressive health workers unprotected analyzed from the 1990s through the Mar del Plata’s fisheries. Through court judgments can display the specialized conception of the disease, which makes the association between sickness and work accident. This constitutes an obstacle to economic damage repair work , while collaborating with the reproduction of the working conditions that cause such damage. Legislative reforms in the mid- 1990s deepened the lack of workers, reducing the chances of access to justice for workers affected by the disease - job accident. In turn, the casualization of labor relations reduced opportunities for economic compensation for the damage, since the difficulty of demonstrating the relationship between damage and the work adds to demonstrate the employment relationship.
: labor courts, fishing industry, occupational health, job insecurity, compensation.


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Social security at territorial level. The case of the Province of Neuquen

María Ignacia Costa

 Susana Hintze

Two systems of Social Security converge in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina: the national one (provided by ANSES, Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social) and the provincial system, headed by the Instituto de Seguridad Social del Neuquen (ISSN). Although other provincial states that have not transferred their pension systems to National Government have similar structures, this case is special because ISSN includes different social services and other policies like social tourism, health attention, etc. Also in the case of family allowances, the national system coexists with the provincial one.
The aim of this article is to reconstruct and to analyse comparatively the protections and the implementation conditions of two following sub-systems of the social security system: the pensions system (national and provincial) and the Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social (AUH) in the Province of Neuquen. The functional dimension of the implementation regime (area of ​​influence, reference population, networks or institutional linkages and quality of protection provided in each jurisdiction) and the political one (relationship between jurisdictional levels) will be specifically studied and analysed.
With regard to the AUH, the hypothesis that guides the work recognizes certain degree of autonomy in the management of local government officials to implement policies within the margins that provide highly standardized formats.
We systematize an extensive qualitative fieldwork comprising interviews and observations made ​​in the six towns of the province which are units of ANSES and ISSN delegations.
Key words: social security - pension system - universal child allowances - implementation regime - protection capacity - territory


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Unstable boundaries between "productive" and "reproductive" work.

Theoretical reflections from the work in the hospitality industry

 Débora Garazi

Based on reflections of work in the hotel sector in Mar del Plata city between the '60s and' 80s, in this article we propose to raise a theoretical and conceptual discussion that has strained the traditional categories productive and reproductive work. We start from the idea that the service sector, and especially those that offer benefits linked to the reproduction of life have a particular productivity. We will focs in the ways in which the work has been approached from the Social Sciences and repair on the notions of 'work' that supported these studies. Then, from the analysis of different types of sources we reconstruct some of the features which acquired the work in the hospitality between the decades of '60 and '80 in Mar del Plata. We support the idea that some of the features of this work is approaching the so-called productive work, and others, to reproductive work. Therefore, the interpretation in binary terms contributes to made invisible some characteristics of some of works  that combine elements of both and according to the context and the impact of such factors as a space of realization, paid or free character, the beneficiaries or the gender of the worker, are closer to one or the other.
Productive work- reproductive work- services- hospitality- Mar del Plata


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The complaint about the law of employee participation in profits: the development of social-political tensions and the struggle for power in Argentina

Gabriel Esteban Merino

The Draft Law on Worker Participation in corporate profits, boosted in 2010 by the leadership of the CGT and supported by Nestor Kirchner, was central to political debate both within the political force articulated to the government at the time, as well as with anti-government actors. Discussions on this initiative became relevant in 2010 when from the CGT, supported by leaders of the national government and other political forces, set the agenda for a possible vote in Congress. From this moment, a struggle of speeches started between social-political forces, the effectuation of a present right embodied in the Constitution but is not guaranteed in practice, the obverse is the struggle for economic surplus and its reverse is the struggle for power in Argentina. The dispute is spread within a context characterised by a gradual strengthening of organized labor movement (particularly the CGT led by MTA core) and its growing influence on the socio-political alliance articulated by Kirchner until 2011. With them are getting deeper political and social tensions in the joint "kirchnerista" and, more generally, between sectors of capital and labor.
Organized Workers, CGT, Kirchnerismo, Capital, participation in corporate


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The Labor-centric Illusion: Contradictions in the Argentine Welfare Regime

under Kirchnerism

Giuseppe Manuel Messina

This article discusses the contradictions in the Argentine Welfare Regime, which have emerged under Presidents Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández. In particular, it deals with the scope of the expansion in non-contributory social policy, which aimed at the universalization of a minimum social protection floor for the previously excluded sectors, but failed to narrow the gap with the traditional contributory social security system. Through an analysis of the phases in which this political experience unfolded, we observe at first a reconstruction of the wage relationship, imbued with the rhetoric of “development with social inclusion”, which led to a reinstatement of a labor-centric approach to social integration. However, this process was incomplete because -among other things- the existence of an irreducible nucleus of labor informality, which reinforced the fragmentation of social protection, inherited from previous decades into multiple systems -public and private- according to income and employment status. Hence the hypothesis that guides this essay is that these contradictions are the result of a mismatch between the observable continuities in the regime of accumulation and the incomplete attempt to reestablish a mode of regulation with similar features that those existing at the time of the industrialization period and the genesis of the Argentine Welfare State.
Argentina, social policy, Welfare Regime


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 Occupational Structure Heterogeneity and Labor Market Segmentation.

Gran Buenos Aires, 1974-2014.

Santiago Poy

The article’s objective is to describe the urban occupational structure’s long-term trends, in order to determine the continuities and changes under different macroeconomic regimes, in terms of three key aspects: its structural heterogeneity –with special reference to the micro-entrepreneurial or ‘informal’ sector–, the labor market segmentation and labor earnings inequality. In particular, it examines the hypothesis that states that it is the heterogeneous dynamic of occupational structure what determines the access to social-protected jobs, and labor earnings distribution, although labor regulations changes are taken into consideration. Micro-data from household’s survey (Encuesta Permanente de Hogares) are used, for the period 1974-2014, corresponding to Gran Buenos Aires area. The research finds an increase in the heterogeneous performance of occupational system with broader consequences in terms of labor earnings distributive pattern.
Structural heterogeneity; labor market segmentation; labor earnings distribution.

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Structural heterogeneity and labor precarity:

Taking into account the working poor

 Dasten Julián Véjar

Javier Hernández Aracena

Precariousness became a central concept when looking at economic relations in Chile and other Latin American countries. This is directly related to the introduction of neoliberalism and labor deregulation. In this paper we propose that precariousness and its role during the processes of economic value creation challenge categories such as “structural heterogeneity” as proposed by ECLAC. We use secondary sources to portray the reality of the so-called "working poor" in Chile, who are increasing their quantitative presence asa result of a general trend towards labor and social precarization. We think that our analysis complements, critically, the categories employed by ECLAC to understand Chilean social structure.

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Informality as field of discussion in the context of the emergence of the concept: juxtapositions between employment  problems and poverty

Eliana, Lijterman

Informality as concept has a mixed texture, wherein problematizations stands apart and intertwines, generating differentiateds interventions in the contemporary labour and social policies's field. Finding out traces of past's discourses in currents problematizations, we have endeavored to recover programmatic and theoritical discussions that crossed the concept's emergence context, in 70’s decade. That context had characterized by an intense production pf diagnosis, explanations and politics recommendations about employment issues, wich were transforming in Latin America since the sixties. An institutions, schools of thought and academicians’s mixture had a leading role in the discussions about the currents employment issues. Our focus of analysis was the identification of the ways in wich the employment issues were demarcated (defined, explained and conceptualized) and the intervention was delimited. Due to aour research, we were interested in detect the links between the employment’s problematizations, poverty and social policys. We worked on the basis of treating three diferentstheoretical’s perspectives. The analysis demostrates that they were very intersected but there are a few theoritcal and programmatic’s coordinates that allow for differentiating them. Those perspectives were: the ECLAC’s approach, called latinoamerican structuralism, about wich we worked based on R. Prebich’s and A. Pinto’s writings; the ILO’s approach, characterized as neostructuralist, whose reading were done in basis of . Tokman’s work, who were one of the institution’s reference in informality’s treatment in Latin America; and to tackle the depency’s theory we selected José Nun’s, AníbalQuijano’s and Ruy Mauro Marini’s writings.

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Labour politics of the government of patricio aylwin and its impact in the chilean syndicalism


   Julio César González Candia

Francisco Zapata Schaffeld

The aim of the  article is to  analyse the labour politics of the first government post dictatorially in Chile, we refer to that of Patricio Aylwin Azocar, and to know his impact in the bases of power of the union movement. To achieve this intention, there was studied the system of labour relations during the political transition, putting emphasis in the agreements I mark - tripartismo and labour reforms. Also they are mentioned as relevant topics of the present work, the debatable need of political stability during the transition and the reopening space to recover the role of social actor on the part of the syndicalism. In the development of the article, together with checking the expositions of theoretical and investigators, actors' opinions join linked directly to the problematics, fruit the above mentioned, of a series of interviews realized to union, academic, leader leaders of national level of political parties and ex-authorities of the government in question.

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The constitutive dimensions of social well-being: a conceptual proposal

 Eugenio Actis di Pasquale

Most of the studies on social well-being are done from a technical and analytical perspective, since its analysis involved in a number of dimensions or fields of social concern -health, education, housing, income, etc.-, without prior preparation of the theoretical concepts involved. While the development of a construct based on the characteristics or properties of social units is not easy, it is essential from a methodological and conceptual perspective.

In this paper we aim to meet that need taking as a starting point a concept of social well-being that includes the reciprocal relationship between the individual and society and therefore understands people as active subjects. From the five dimensions that comprise -enjoy a good health, enjoy public safety, achieve an appropriate educational level, have a decent work and live in a suitable home-, we conducted a brief discussion on the scope of each and then arrive the corresponding definitions.

The most important aspects of this conceptualization are in the last two components, incorporating decent work as achieving social well-being and home not only as a unit of social reproduction, but also of gender roles and mandates.

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Like pouring water into the sea: otherness and distinction in the identity construction of a movement of unemployed workers

 Santiago Nardin

In this article we analyse the identity construction in a cooperative of the “Argentina Trabaja” program, linked to a movement of unemployed workers, attending at the experience of its members, and interested in the tensions that cross its constitution. Otherness and distinction will be central notions of this work, related to two phenomena that structure the experience of marginalized fractions: the processes of collective organization and social differentiation. Both refer to dynamic construction of identity (individual and group) around which legitimate patterns of action and sociability are organized. We suggest that these are subjective forms of demarcation of border that define the criteria for membership of the cooperative and the movement, and therefore affect the configuration of the popular politicity.

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Social Economy and critical thinking. Contributions to the analysis of the current scenario.

 Analé Barrera

 This article intends to identify and characterize the different views on “social economy” (SE) in contemporary Argentina. From the understanding that this concept is used in a generic way, with diverse and contradictory senses that refer to an undefined field of economic activities, two positions are broadly distinguished: a perspective of integration to capitalism and another one that criticizes it. Moreover, the focus would be set on the second one. For this purpose, the paper would recover the analysis that Marx and Engels did about cooperatives and utopian socialists.
At this point, SE current reality in Argentina would be approached through the raising of new questions.

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The neoliberal tendency in the new public management:

To govern through the market

 Sebastián Botticelli

This article aims to examine the assumptions and implications of New Public Management. Because of the recommendation of international financial institutions, this line of administrative thinking had a large degree of dissemination in the last decade of the twentieth century and influenced several state reform processes that were experienced in Latin America. Based on this review, it will be shown that the usual characterization that defines the neoliberal tendency as a mere contraction of the size of the structures of public administration does not sufficiently considered the changes in the logic used by the State to redefined its forms of intervention in the social dynamics. The present work hopes to configure new criteria for the critical inquiry of our current time attending to the persistence of the past in our ways to understand the world and act on it.

Key words: Neoliberal gubernmentality, state administration, new managerialism.

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Characterization and labor insertion of street vendors:

the case of San Victorino in Bogotá

 Roberto Mauricio Sánchez Torres

This article presents a characterization of street vendors and analyses the ways of labor insertion in that activity, based on the case of San Victorino in Bogotá. The research takes as analytical reference the fieldwork that was done in San Victorino. The fieldwork was formed by the application of a survey based on non-probability sampling answered for 414 street vendors and at the same time some testimony were collected, both of them contributed to the study about labor insertion. Throughout the article some topics are tackled and are emphasized: the heterogeneity in career path and characteristics of street vendors; the relevance of specific population groups within street vendors; and the link between labor insertion in street sales and some social, historical and economic aspects.
: street vendors; labor insertion; informal activities; habitus; labor situation in Colombia.

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Development issues, social classes and the bourgeoisie

in LatinAmerica: Conceptualreflections


Gabriela Wyczykier

The article proposes the systematic introduction of a set of theoretical, conceptual and characteristics of Latin American social sciences emerged between the 60 and 70, which discussed the issue of social classes in relation to the uniqueness that adopted policies problematizations development issues, underdevelopment and dependency in the region. In particular, it distinguishes and presents from a bibliographic reflection approach the existence of a singular concern present in various approaches for the forming process, consolidation and objectification of the bourgeoisie as a class in Latin America. While the analytical production period is interested in presenting vast and rich, for writing an elective cutting inserts work in scientific thinking and critical Marxist, and structuralism of CEPAL. interpretative key enabling introduce trends in how to address these processes is performed.
 The recovery of these analyzes interest charges in the current millennium whereas in many countries in the region has returned to the political and academic debate development issues as a matter, in this connection, the position of its constituent groupings, so reentering active discussion on the role of local, national, transnational bourgeoisie, as actors dynamics in this procces.
Key Words: clases - Latin America – development – dependency - bourgeoisie

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Global Crisis and technological change in the steel industry in Argentina and the World (1970-1990)

 Emiliano Mussi

This article will show how the economic crisis was processed in the steel industry in the years 1970-1990 in Argentina and the world. The world unity updated the possibility of incorporating technology. Those capitals that could incorporate this technology on time, achieved greater competitiveness and tackle the economic crisis. Japan and South Korea were at the forefront of this incorporation, and argentine companies Acindar and Siderca. In contrast, although for different reasons, the United States and argentinian Somisa state company, were relegated.
steel - technological change - innovation - Argentina

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Serenade to Cafayate. “A Gift to the People in the Transformation Process of the Traditional Physiognomy

 Andrea Villagrán e Irene López

La Serenata a Cafayate (Serenade to Cafayate), held since 1974 up to this date, is tackled in this work as an event with enormous analytical potential, inasmuch as investigating about it raises different questions and enables the exploration of multiple dimensions. These dimensions refer to the spheres of work, of social relationships, of celebrations, and the senses they concentrate.  Taking into consideration the perspective offered by the social exchange theory, as well as the concepts of total social fact and seasonal variation of M. Mauss, the Serenade can be understood -beyond its celebratory and folkloric show nature- as part of a complex structure of transformations occurring in a context of productive restructuring and labor organization which impact on the diverse spheres of life and, mainly, in the way the relationships between employer-landowners and employees-farm worker are established.  Within the framework of that process, the exhaustion of a “traditional system” of interrelation becomes evident and a progressive redefinition of social status takes places along with a role reconfiguration. The article shows a series of significant displacements on the social, economic, and cultural orders since the Serenade concentrates and reframes a set of practices which precedes it, developed in private spheres, within the farms and in forums common to the elite, towards a space that is becoming public at the same time that a collective subject, the “people”, is formed.  It is for this collective subject that the show is held, in the sense of a “gift”.
Key Words:
Event - social processes - landowners and farm workers - "gift"

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Labor process in the manufacture of harvesters in Argentina (1920-1960):
the case of Senor company

 Damián Andrés Bil

The industry is one of the most studied items on the economic history in Argentina. However, they are few studies on the development of the labor process in the country. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the labor process evolution in the Argentinian combine industry between 1920 and 1960, from the study of the company Senor, based on interviews and information about the firm. To compare their situation with global standards, we also reconstruct the process in the largest firm in the United States (International Harvester Company). We believe that this comparative approach can provide insight into the limits of the competitiveness of the sector in Argentina and contribute to the debate on the so-called industrialization in the country and the continent.
: organization of production (L23); combines-harvesters industry (L62); industrial structure Argentina (N16); skills and labor productivity (J24).

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Campo de Herrera: history in the reedbed. Investigation, extension

and rural self-organization

 Cecilia Gárgano

In 1966, during the dictatorship headed by General Juan Carlos Onganía, several sugar cane were closed in the province of Tucuman, in northwest Argentina. One of them, the former mill "Bella Vista", became the “Cooperativa de TrabajadoresUnidos de Campo de Herrera”, the first experience of an agricultural cooperative organization in Argentina the country. The history of the emergence and trajectory of this cooperative, located in the locality in Famaillá, had the National Agricultural Technology Institute (INTA) first organization dedicated to research and rural extension throughout Latin America as the main actor, which was indeed the first organization dedicated to research and rural extension throughout Latin America. INTA suggested that lands could be exploited collectively. An anthropologist and a technician crew were involved in the next chapter, when they were part of a team that built a fundamental link in the life of the cooperative, during the political and social upheaval in the 1970s. From institutional documents, research materials and interviews, this article analyzes the trajectory of this experience, from the beginning until the dismantling of the team, as part of a repressive cycle of long duration.
: agriculturalcooperative; extension; research; sugarcanemill

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Labor reality, rights and unionism in the horticultural workers

of Gran La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) 1990-2009

 Soledad Lemmi

 The present article deals with the situation of the rural peons in the Horticultural area, their labor rights and the scope of their fulfillment. In turn, and in direct relation to the above, the role played by the Argentine Union of Rural Workers and Stevedores (UATRE), a guild that groups these workers in the sector under study, their trade union and political actions and the Difficulties that it finds in a complex socio-productive context such as horticultural. This is part of the Marxist theoretical framework, and is combined with a methodology of quantitative-qualitative analysis that explores primary information sources (interviews, newspapers, censuses) and secondary. Itisconcludedthatthecharacteristics of thesalariedworkers in question, theproductionpatterns and production, alongwiththeideology of theunion are theelementsthatexplaintheunionaction.
Argentina; horticulturalists; salaries; rights; tradeunions

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Pastors of the “new paradigm”: organicintellectuals and hegemonicconstruction

of agribusiness

 María Dolores Liaudat

 In the last decades, in our country, a big transformation of the agricultural model with the advance of agribusiness has been witnessed. The adoption of a new social form of production is necessarily associated with the transformation of the ways of living, thinking and feeling of the actors that lead it. In this sense, it is particularly relevant the ideological work for the dissemination and teaching of another form of interaction with nature, technology and labor relations. In this article we investigate a series of local actors who have promoted the agribusiness paradigm: HéctorOrdoñez, VíctorTrucco, HéctorHuergo and Gustavo Grobocopatel.From a Gramscian perspective we identify the different tasks that they fulfill as agribusiness organic intellectuals through the analysis of two dimensions. On the one hand, their life trajectories: the passage from one space of socialization to another in relation to the agricultural world, the networks that they interweave and the spaces in which they converge. On the other hand, the conception of the world they hold, identifying the conceptual nuclei, the roots and the ideological characteristics of their discourses. Through their itineraries of thought and action we identify the network of power that interweaves around the ideological building of agribusiness in our country
: agribusiness; organic intellectuals; ideology; discourse; hegemony

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Agrochemicals in question, practices in tension. The use of agricultural
nputs and environmental care in family Lobería farmers.

 Luciana Muscio

 This paper is about productive practices and decisions that family farmers of Lobería, Buenos Aires province, make on agrochemicals use. Through interviews it is analized uses and main economic, technological and symbolic conditioning factors involved in interviewee decisions making and their relationship with chemical inputs uses. According to interviewees speech about their practices it is identified different perceptions of safety / danger of these inputs and different razonabilidades about care-or not-of natural resources and the environment.
: chemical inputs; production decisions; conditioning factors; rationality.

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 Territory and accumulation. Considerations about megacorporation’s and agribusiness logics in Argentina

 Virginia Toledo López

The article analyzes the case of the installation of a biodiesel production plant in Santiago del Estero. Particularly, it seeks to understand the strategy of accumulation of mega-companies in Argentine agriculture. Also, it aims to contribute to the reflection on the forms of penetration of capitalism logics in the territories. The methodology is mostly qualitative, through documentary analysis of primary and secondary sources.

Keywords: territory; agribusiness; (mega)companies; extractivism; biodiesel.

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Gender and inequalities in the labor market: the separation of private drivers from domestic service in Argentina

Inés Pérez

Throughout the twentieth century,work was progressively regulated by the state and associated with different social rights. Domestic service was poor and belatedly included in these regulations, only after the separation of certain specialized occupations that were previously considered part of this work. Indeed, during the nineteen forties some workers formerly part of domestic service, would achieve the enactment of specific regulations that guaranteed them an independent status.As part of this process, in 1946 private drivers obtained the sanction of a specific legal code that explicitly excluded themfrom domestic service, giving them certain rights that would only be recognized for domestic workers a decade later and, even then, only in a limited way. From the analysis of bills, parliamentary debates, legal journals and case law, in this article I reconstruct the paths through which private drivers were able to distinguish themselves from domestic service, becoming a professionalized occupation, noting the significance that gender had on this process.

Key words: work, gender, labor rights, domestic service, private drivers

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Don’t be excellent, be strive.

Critical approach to the ethical core of individualized job market in Chile

Hugo Sir Retamales

In the following paper, we explore the symbolic position of the category of “effort” inside chile's labor market. In order to achieve that, we draw a brief description of the major changes on the labour market during Pinochet’s dictatorship and their links with global transformations in the statesmanship. Later, we describe our main results, focusing on the symbolic position of the “effort” category and his link with a general grammar perfectly suited up to precarity, flexibility and vulnerability conditions. In the final reflections, the analysis is Synthesized in order to show the “effort” as an ethic core who sustains the personal actions, in a world of labour completely individualized. The methodology of this work is exposed before of our results. 
Labour market, individualization, excellence, effort, ethical core

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Inclusion policies and sociability in kindergartens of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires: between mutual recognition and new dynamics of exclusion


Nora Gluz

Inés Rodríguez Moyano

This article presents research findings about democratization processes in early education in the period 2003-2015, focusing on the implementation of the Universal Child Allowance (UCA) policy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It examines comparatively the bonds that institutional actors and families deploy in schools located in high social vulnerability territories.
It is a case study that shows the scopes and limits of the rights’ expansion in inclusive policies toward early childhood. It shows that, together with the significant expansion of the offer, in contexts of institutional weakness and insufficient resources, distinctive and segregative ways of sociability are produced tensing the logic of rights that the measures have helped to set up. It also warns that stigmatizing representations regarding poor sectors survive and, in the frame of the educational conditionality of the UCA, become one of the sources of coercion from school towards families. Finally, it detects some delicate situations such as inclusive education of children with special needs in the context of the institutionalized paradigm with the National Law of Integral Protection of girls, boys and teenagers’ rights.

Key words
: social policy, social inclusion, Universal Child Allocation (AUH), sociability, elementary school, Argentina.

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Invisible Women. Politics of secrecy among women who perform commercial sex

Santiago Morcillo

In this article I explore the political implications of the practice of splitting and hiding performed by women engaged in commercial sex in order to keep secret its insertion in the "prostitution". For this I rely on the analysis of observation and interviews with women who perform commercial sex under different modalities and in three cities: Buenos Aires, San Juan and Rosario. This allowed me to learn about different tactics women use to manage information and ways to avoid or confront stigmatization.

Here I propose a political reading of the effects of these tactics, both at the symbolic constructions they enable or hinder and in relation to the processes of organization and politicization of these women. Thus I seek to pose some questions arising from reflection on the possibilities and risks of secret / visibility process for various stigmatized subjects and in different cultural contexts.

Keywords: prostitution, visibility, stigma, hiding, secreto

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Nursing working conditions in Argentina: between professional and precarious health care

                                                            Eliana Aspiazu

Nursing is one of the "care occupations" within the complex framework of the health sector’s workforce. In this context, nursing has the distinctiveness of being the activity with the highest level of feminization in the health system (85% are women). It is also the occupation that carries the heaviest burden of direct care in its tasks. The issues affecting nurses in Argentina are diverse and have a negative impact both on their working conditions and on the quality of the care provided. Work overload, multi-employment, deficient infrastructure, lack of inputs and low salaries are part of the general situation the health sector. But nurses also present peculiarities that place them in a position of greater vulnerability. The deficit in the amount of nurses and their skill levels, together with the devaluation of their skills within health teams, add complexity to the employment outlook for this occupation. This article analyzes, based on available statistics and in-depth interviews, the changes that occurred in recent years in nursing, in terms of their role within health teams, the visualization of the occupation, and the meanings of care associated with it. Particularly, the article analyzes the impact of professionalization in the occupation, the socio-demographic changes associated with increased participation of men, the role of trade unions, as well as subjective and cultural aspects, such as perceptions about working conditions, motivations for choosing this profession, and its linkage with other health workers.
Key words
: Work conditions - Gender – Care occupations – Health Sector –nurses

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Gender and emotionalwork. Thefoundations of poor working conditions in preschool education. Mar del Plata, Province of Buenos Aires

Romina Denisse Cutuli  

This article addresses the poor working conditions in preschool education from a gender perspective. The limited presence of the state, both in its role as provider and control device in the provision of care, leaves child care trapped between familiarization and commodification, with greater intensity during the first three years of life. Therefore, early childhood education has a strong private component, which is also to a large extent informal and precarious, due to the working relations that sustain it, but also because of its meager institutional and infrastructure settings. Thesepoor working conditionshold a tense relationship with the quality requirements attributable to such aqualifiedoccupation. In this sense, this article suggests that the gendering of teaching at the initial level, and its consequent association with unpaid care work, act as a disqualifying factor of the job. Also, abnegation expectations assigned to the maternal role are added to this devaluing speech, allowing, ultimately, sustaining the tension between precariousness and quality. Keywords: Working conditions – Care work – Gender – Preschool teaching.

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The labour conditions of care workers in Argentina. Reflections based on the analysis of three selected occupations

 Valeria Esquivel y Francisca Pereyra 

The analysis of care–related occupations has acquired significant relevance in the feminist agenda of the last years. These occupations – mainly concentrated in the health and education sectors as well as in domestic service –are highly feminized and generate employment opportunities for many women. Nonetheless, they exhibit relatively poor working conditions, since care is usually associated to supposedly feminine abilities, socially undervalued as “real work”. At the same time, these poor labor conditions, especially meagre salaries, put in question the quality of care services provided. This article, based on the Argentinean case, proposes a comparative analysis of a selected group of care occupations, which include nurses, kindergarten and primary teachers, as well as domestic workers. Even when these occupations share certain vulnerabilities associated to their care content, their labor conditions present significant variations. Based on this situation, the main objective of this paper is to deepen in the understanding of the factors that mitigate or reinforce the social and economic devaluation of care–related occupations. By doing so, the article seeks to reflect on some key aspects that could be approached by public policy in order to improve the labor situation of these workers, and thus, the quality of care services provided.
Gender– Labor conditions– Care occupations– Domestic service – Nurses– Teachers.

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The task of community childcare workers in the suburbs of buenos aires, ¿a way of bottom up subsidy?

 Marisa Fournier 

The insufficient public childcare services in relation with the challenges faced by new family structures and the need for more than one income in vulnerable families result in overcharging poor women. It also causes less incomes in poor homes since childcare is an obstacle to work outside the house. Some of childhood politics articulate with community organizations that have become childcare centers. These are collective centers with strong neighbor and family bonds where urban poor women get organized to face children needs. Firstly, these women fulfilled feeding needs and then they started to satisfy learning and recreational needs. They provide childcare services for their own children and other´s. The work focuses on the analysis of the situation of these childcare workers in these mixed institutions where the community logic is strongly connected with the principles of the Social and Solidarity Economy. This community logic also mixes with childhood politics in high vulnerable territories. The other topic presented in the article is the auto perception and appreciation that these workers have of their task. It also describes how collective childcare impacts their personal lives.
Key words
: gender- community childcare workers- social and solidarity economy- childcare politics- feminism.

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Continuous security and double circulation of knowledge 

Nuria Giniger y Sara Cufré 

In its 66 years of history, the company Aerolíneas Argentinas has been privatized in 1991 and re-nationalized in 2008. When the State reassumed the company’s direction, it started to develop various corporate policies, some of them rooted in the company’s tradition and others rather novel. In previous works, we have identified that the current corporate policies are defined in terms of the Continuous Improvement perspective. In the case of Aerolíneas Argentinas labor rhythms intensification and costs reduction are organized through two elements: quality and security.
We have identified that the so called ‘Operational Security Culture’ goes through the group of corporate policies in Aerolíneas Argentinas and it spreads out values and specific tasks that workers must assume. In this sense, there’s a series of devices that the company sets in two directions: one related to training and the other to monitoring systems.
The aim of this article is to analyze the relation among the so called ‘Operational Security Culture’ and a double circulation of knowledge between the company and the workers. To do so, we will focus on a relevant secondary source: the corporate journal ‘CoOrdenadas’ which is specifically directed to the company workers.

Key words:
Corporate policy, Security Culture, Continuous Improvement

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The incomplete future: Cconstructing labor trajectories for early 21st century 

Ana Miranda y Milena Arancibia 

The analysis of labor trajectories among young people acquires new meaning when it is understood as part of a more complex social structuring process, in which social norms change over life course. We consider historical time influencing young adult’s lives by virtue of the opportunities offered by the contexts they transit during their youth. This article is part of a project on career paths of young people who graduated from school during Argentina´s socio-economic crisis. We present the results of a set of biographical interviews about transitions from education to working world in Grater Buenos Aires, using a typology based on the occupational category obtained at the age of 30. As part of the conclusions, debating in the field of youth studies and social structuring processes, based on arguments about the validity of the notion of "social generation", the expansion of "grammar" of youth between different social sectors is discussed.
Job placement, Labor trajectories, Social Generation, Education and work transition 

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Analysis of blowtorch workers in shipyard in Brazil: considerations about worker health in ergological perspective 

Rayana Ferreira Vinagre y Alexandre de Carvalho Castro

The objective of this paper was to analyze the work-health-diseases relationships that involves blowtorch workers activities, in shipyard located in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The qualitative methodology used by the 
theorical basis of ergology, designed by interviewing a particular manufactory ship blowtorch workers. The results evinced that, even though all the activities seemed to be, apparently the same, the blowtorch workers 
had the habit of develop their work`s activities in a singular way. Theses aspects could be realized by analyzing the uses of itself, through the achievement to extra hours and to the use of equipment, important things 
that also implies to the worker health.
Keywords: Human Factors at Work; Ergology; Ergonomics; Worker's Health; Shipbuilding industry.

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La Argentine Sociology in the sixties: Cátedras Nacionales, editorial projection and circulation of ideas  

Anabela Ghilini 

Cátedras Nacionales (CN) was a novel experience at the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) during the period from 1966 to 1973 related to the process of politicization and approach to Peronism of the media and academics. From the editorial point of view and dissemination of thought, this paper aims to identify the type held by many of this group with political and cultural projects linked to academia as the Antropología 3er. Mundo (ATM) and  Envido. Another aspect of our interest and could be considered part of the publishing projection of CN was the special link with some publishers and bookstores like Cimarron sociologist Miguel Hurts- along with bibliographic production. Moreover, in these years, some books were published members of the CN, such as the emblematic work of Roberto Carri “Isidro Velazquez, las formas prerevolucionarias de la violencia” (1968) expressing a fanoniana sociology. As part of this deployment it can also be mentioned the publication in late 1971 of Gramsci's writings under the “El Príncipe Moderno y la voluntad nacional-popular” title.
Politización- Peronismo- University- Social Science- Cátedras Nacionales-

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Failed “developments” at the historic mines Famatina and Capillitas: Issues for thinking about the current socio-enviornmental situation 

Facundo Rojas y Lucrecia Wagner 

This paper deals with the working conditions and the socio-environmental consequences of large-scale mining in the provinces of La Rioja and Catamarca, Argentina, between 1850 and 1914. It analizes the evolution of the largest mines, Famatina and Capillitas.
We affirm that the mining companies’ appropriation of the workers’ wages and the exploitation of natural resources influenced the crisises of these historic mines. These crises led to the abandonment of ore-rich sites for decades, and even did away with regional economic approaches that were based on large-scale mining, which initially seemed like a solution to the region’s problems, according to the governing elite. Even though the clearest causes of abandonment were high costs and difficult access for transportation, in addition to unfavorable economic and political situations in the country and in the world, other socio-enviornmental causes, which we highlight, have not been sufficiently evaluated.
We rely on the the critical analysis of historical documents, from perspectives and methodologies appropriate for climate history, sociology, and political ecology. We hope to contibute to issues that are essential for understanding the contradictions of our time,  as mining is curently being debated in these same areas and sites.

: mining; Famatina; Capillitas; regional development; workers; political ecology.

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Over-education in Colombia: an analysis of the determinants and misalignments of the labor market at a national and regional context 

Raúl Francisco Quejada y Jorge Nelson Ávila 

This research addresses the phenomenon of over-education in Colombia, contextualized in the Caribbean Coast of the country. Methodologically, employed a probabilistic model Logit type to constrain the presence and /or absence of on education in the face of changes in variables such as age of the individual, type of contract, occupation of the same, and region of origin/residence. The results suggest that in the Colombian Caribbean Coast, the phenomenon of on education is presented in smaller proportion compared with the aggregate national and the great cities of the interior of the country. By way of conclusion establishes that over-education in Colombia can be solved with an analysis of productive vocations territorial (of departments and municipalities) and the coordination between the educational system and the labor market demand.
over-education, labor market, educational system, productive vocation.

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Essay about the restructuring of indirect tax system: socio-economic analysis about the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a single rate in Portugal


João Catarino, Ricardo de Moraes y Pedro Miguel Alves Ribeiro [1]


The common system of VAT adopted by all member states of the European Union, including Portugal, comprises various rates that differently tax goods and services subject to this tax. From a strictly control and management technical point of view it would be preferable to adopt a single tax rate. In this research we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a single rate of VAT in Portugal. The general conclusions are valid not only for all member states of the European Union, but also for all countries that adopt the VAT system.

Keywords: Single VAT rate; European Union; Value added tax; Consumption taxes; Tax equity.

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The cabecilla and cuadrillas in the formation of transient labor migration from Nueva Francia (Santiago del Estero) south of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina) 

María José Martínez 

This article looks at the story of a group of santiagueños rural workers have a long labor migration path, mainly in the south of the province of Buenos Aires. The special status when these workers is that the migration process which conforms participate exceptions, commanded by a “cabecilla” and from the grouping in “cuadrillas”. Therefore the main objective of this paper is to describe the analysis of their stories, the importance of this relationship that is built between the leader and members of the gangs. As methodological strategy it uses an "explanatory approach" from a case study. The choice of a form of qualitative approach seeks to understand and analyze in a given context and time behavior of social actors. Among the most interesting features is to highlight the importance of the dyad formed by the leader and the gang, as one of the most important components to consider in the construction of migrant process, not only as a means of recruitment and disciplining workers, but also as a mechanism of organization within this segment of workers in a context totally precarious.
Temporary labor migration; job placement; leader; gang; Argentina; Santiago del Estero.

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Challenges in addressing rural labor in northern Patagonia: women in forestation, fruit and horticulture 

Verónica Trpin, María Daniela Rodríguez y Silvia Brouchoud


This paper aims to reflect on our research practice in rural areas, about the tensions and challenges of women go to the field as holding glances with "lenses" gender. In the work of research has been necessary to consider our disciplinary backgrounds to address and bring more complex understandings of the studied regional issues: work processes and senses of belonging built by working men and women in various circuits rural production. Develop some tensions present in the fieldwork in production forestry, fruit and horticulture in the provinces of Neuquen and Rio Black, circuits in which men and women of migrant and indigenous origin are inserted. We believe that studying work spaces and experiences that men and women pass around work, is a double challenge: first to make complex, from ethnography, crosses between social class, gender and ethnicity as problematic unexplored field in agricultural studies. On the other hand, re-educate our gaze from the feminist contributions and not to reproduce, to masculinized activities, interpretive schemes which homogenize the worker category blurring gender inequalities present in rural areas.
rural labor; women; migrants; population mapuche; forestation; fruit farming; horticultura

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Macroeconomicdisruption and structuralcontinuity in Argentina post convertibility. A contribution to the debate on the nature of neoliberalism. 

Germán Pinazo, Marcelo Delfín y Ana Drolas 

This article aims to analyze aspects of the development of the Argentina economy since 2002 and, more specifically, the performance of its predominant agents, establishing the continuities and ruptures in relation to the neoliberal policies of the 90s.
The devaluation of 2002 began a period where historical records recorded in economic growth and job creation, which, in our view, initiated a major debate in the social sciences in our country linked to the nature of the process, and more specifically, whether these new dynamics were or not linked to a break with the neoliberal stage of its economic history.
The aim of this work is to contribute to this debate from a characterization that our view is novel in relation to the stage in question, from which we could reinterpret existing and original information (which will bring here) linked to some of the central points of the debate.

Key Words:
Neoliberalism; Argentina; Transnational companies; Neodevelopmentalism.

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The complaint about the law of employee participation in profits: the development of social-political tensions and the struggle for power in Argentina 

Gabriel Esteban Merino 

The Draft Law on Worker Participation in corporate profits, boosted in 2010 by the leadership of the CGT and supported by Nestor Kirchner, was central to political debate both within the political force articulated to the government at the time, as well as with anti-government actors. Discussions on this initiative became relevant in 2010 when from the CGT, supported by leaders of the national government and other political forces, set the agenda for a possible vote in Congress. From this moment, a struggle of speeches started between social-political forces, the effectuation of a present right embodied in the Constitution but is not guaranteed in practice, the obverse is the struggle for economic surplus and its reverse is the struggle for power in Argentina. The dispute is spread within a context characterised by a gradual strengthening of organized labor movement (particularly the CGT led by MTA core) and its growing influence on the socio-political alliance articulated by Kirchner until 2011. With them are getting deeper political and social tensions in the joint "kirchnerista" and, more generally, between sectors of capital and labor.
: organized workers; CGT; kirchnerismo; capital; participation in corporate profits.

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Las luchas de la migración en contextos laborales: la experiencia de sindicalización de una trabajadora doméstica peruana en Córdoba, Argentina 

María José Magliano, María Victoria Perissinotti y Denise Zenklusen 

This paper sets out to reconstruct the unionization experience of a Peruvian domestic worker in Córdoba (Argentina), looking into the processes of subjectivity and resistance through which she becomes a political subject that activates the right to claim for rights. Assuming the challenge of capturing the specificity of contemporary global migrations, this paper analyzes –from a qualitatively methodological strategy– a life story, in order to understand those migration’ struggles whose claims do not refer to migration status and their legal aspect, but to work and labors rights. Therefore, it mainly incorporates two theoretical perspectives: autonomy of migration and intersectional perspective. Our premise starts from conceiving that the process we explore in this paper –understood as a “struggle” and related to a key aspect of migrant subjectivity as work is– is principally determined by the intersection of gender, social class and age within a life course.
Key words:
Struggles of Migration; Domestic Work; Autonomy of Migration; Migrant Women; intersectionality.

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Multilocalized research in transnational migratory studies: theoretical and practical contributions 

Patricia Jimena Rivero 

This article presents some theoretical and methodological considerations around the multilocalized research designs for the study of migrations. After the innovative proposal of anthropology to "follow" an object of study in movement, the field of migration became the most common contemporary research genre for this type of approach, especially if we focus on the work from a transnational perspective. It is argued that the multilocal researcher must construct research designs capable of "mapping" the social space of the studied group that is relationally analyze the places in which the subjects of study move. Precisely there is the contribution of the multisituated works: it is not the diversity of sites and locations where the researcher is located what makes its methodological contribution, but the construction of an object of study centered on the relationships, associations and links between those places. It is argued that while multisituated investigations offer wide methodological advantages, they also imply several challenges. The article illustrates the theoretical discussion about multilocalization with the design of a research on Argentinians returned from Spain in the period 2008-2016.
Key words:
multisituated ethnography, multilozalized research, transnational migration, transnationality, multisituated methodology. 

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Four decades of Unsatisfied Basic Needs in Argentina


Agustín Arakaki


Although Poverty Line (PL) is the most popular method for identification of poor people, its ability to account for a multidimensional phenomenon such as poverty has been questioned. Different methodologies have been proposed, one of the most important is the method of Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN). In this context, this article aims to adapt the latter to be applied to data from the Permanent Household Survey and analyze the evolution of the proportion of people identified as poor using this method in the long term.

We show that the number of people in households with UBN tends to reduce in the long term, but at different stages, whose averages are steps having a decreasing height. As a result of this evolution, 9.3% of the population in the GBA and 9.2% of the population in 28 cities lived in households with unsatisfied basic needs at the end of 2013. At the same time, we show that our results can be considered a good complement to the information provided by the method of the PL.


Keywords: Poverty, Unsatisfied Basic Needs, Argentina, Methodology for Poverty Measurement.


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Doing the night. the commercial and labor market of electronic clubs (Cordoba. Argentina)



Gustavo Blázquez


This article discusses some of the routines of interaction related to the commercial production of electronic scene and clubs in the city of Cordoba. Throw the description of the actions of the clubs’ owners and of different workers in the electronic scene I analize the social dynamics that made of the night a labor market for a group of young middle class during the first decade of the XXI century. How new generations were integrated to the economic and cultural development of the city? Which strategies were built by these individuals to enter the labor market? To answer these questions, we focus on the experience of young workers and entrepreneurs who combined "cultural capitalism" (Rifkin, 2000), the subsequent uncertainties to the 2001 crisis and the market expansion of the nightlife


Keywords: youth; dance music; labour; employment; nightlife


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Latin-American immigration, labor market and accumulation models in contemporary Argentina. A comparative analysis between the 90´s and the 2000´s


Nicolás Herrera y Gastón Ángel Varesi


The article analyzes -in a comparative manner- the integration of Latin-American immigrants in the Argentinian labor market, between the 90's and the 2000's. In the first part we review theoretical perspectives on models of accumulation, (un) employment and the labor nature of international migration, that allowed us to frame our study object. Regarding these theories, we understand that they have paid little attention to the changes and / or continuities, produced on the employment situation of immigrants by the passage from one accumulation model to another. Incorporating this analytical dimension, our research tries to make a first contribution.

After carrying out a long-term approach on the relationship between immigration and labor market in Argentina, in the second part of the paper, we use a set of statistical data to analyze the ruptures and continuities that occurred in the Latin American immigrants’ labor situation during the 90s and 2000s. Finally the article presents a series of conclusions that allow to recover a wide-ranging reading about how both models of accumulation impacted, occupationally, on this population.


Keywords: work; emerging factors; suffering-happiness


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On TV: brief characterization  of TV criticism in the press


Yamila Heram


The aim of this article is to share some reflections about television critic from the La Nación, Página/12, and Clarín and the magazines Página/30, El Porteño, Noticias and La Maga during Multimediatic period (1990-1194). We share the dominant lines of critics in each of the analyzed journals and magazines.


Key words: Television – printed press – television criticis



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Sociability and the world of labor. A newspaper newsroom case study


Laura Rosemberg


Whereas there are numerous approaches about the place that interpersonal relationships take when it comes to the insertion into the labor market, there are few studies on sociability as a dimension that runs across the various stages in people’s socialization at work. The ethnography study I performed at the newsroom of Tiempo Argentino newspaper to analyze the process of labor socialization of young journalists sparked my interest in this subject.

The implemented techniques –participant-observation, in depth-interviews and non-directive interviews– allowed me to notice that the analysis of the learning process of these young journalists and their socialization would be incomplete if we did not take into account a fairly widespread perception about their daily work in the newsroom: "the good working environment". Thus, in this article I analyze the role of sociability in the process of labor socialization based on a case study at the newsroom of Tiempo Argentino newspaper.

On one hand, through the description and analysis of the practices and representations of journalists, we see that sociability strengthens the collective character of the journalistic work. On the other hand, it operates as a guarantee for the continuity of journalists’ careers on this media and not in others.


Keywords: Labor sociability – Labor socialization – Journalism – Printed press – Ethnography 


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Incorporation of women in large law firms in Argentina


María Eugenia Gastiazoro


The study is related to the legal profession, mainly in the law firms sectors based on management tasks. Gender composition is observed in different hierarchies of some firms as a changing trend between 2006 and 2011. Occupational mobility of women is understood by taking into account the organizational discourse constructed and by analyzing what kind of professionals are included or excluded.

The importance of inquiring into these specific ways of organization, within the legal profession work environment, lies on the influence of the legal culture. Even though the 12 law firms, with which the analysis was done, do not represent prominent elite in Argentina, if we compare them to the total of professionals in the country, the consideration is appropriate as their practices have great influence in the internal legal culture of the profession itself. For that reason, this research explores and tries to reveal how gender and profession are configured among power and prestige areas.


Keywords: profession, law firms, women, Occupational mobility


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Sciences Education: new professional definitions from recent history


María Eugenia Vicente


A hundred years after the founding of the first career of Sciences Education in Argentina, at the National University of La Plata, the article aims to contribute to the knowledge about the professional characteristics of this discipline in contemporary history. Therefore, the structural modifications of the professional characteristics are reconstructed in dialogue with employability strategies, in the last forty years. The analysis suggests that the reconfiguration of Sciences Education promotes other conditions to produce knowledge in the educational field. The conclusions suggested new conceptualizations about the professional field and the graduate’s socio-professional practices that overcome the conceptions that recognize the Sciences Education as a fragmented, unstructured and hybrid discipline.


Key words: Sciences Education, professional field, strategies, graduates


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Heterogeneities and working conditions among academics at the University of Buenos Aires. A comparative study
between the Pharmacy and Biochemistry, and the Economics’ Schools

Cecilia Rikap


This article analyzes the working conditions of faculty from the case of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). In particular, we chose the Pharmacy and Biochemistry (FFyB) and Economics (FCE) faculties because they are, respectively, good examples of research and professional traditions, which coexist in the UBA. We concentrate on the following characteristics: perception of salary, job stability, the relationship between tasks performed and positions, dedication to research and importance of the income received from the UBA in the total individual income. As methodology, official statistical results are analyzed supplemented with information obtained from different offices of the UBA. Among the main results we observed a deterioration of faculty's working conditions, overall. However, after examining the FFyB and FCE, we revealed sharp heterogeneities. In the FCE working conditions are more critical than the overall results of the UBA, while the FFyB shows a more encouraging scenario. These findings lead us to believe in the need to develop different proposals to reverse these trends, focusing on the specifics of each type of school, and not just general tips for all the UBA.


Keywords: University, Undergraduate Faculty, Faculty Working Conditions,  University of Buenos Aires



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The subjective experience of inequality in everyday life. Contributions of Alfred Schutz’s phenomenological sociology


Daniela Griselda López


The analysis of social inequalities has frequently been presented in sociological research in terms of the distribution of assets and of social, cultural, or political opportunities, i.e., in terms of the objective possibilities of acquisition of strategic resources. However, little has been said about the subjective manifestation of the phenomenon. And in the works that have studied that aspect the assumption underlying sustains that the subjective experience of inequalities only involves comparisons with Others. Starting from a critical review of these perspectives the article recovers, from a theoretical viewpoint, the actor’s subjective meaning for the approach of social inequality taking as a reference Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically oriented sociology. It is maintained that Schutzian sociology provides conceptual tools to investigate subjective experience of inequality in everyday life, as well as guidelines for the empirical approach of that experience in different cultural and historical contexts.


Keywords: Inequality, Discrimination, Subjectivity, Everyday life, Phenomenological Sociology

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Processes of social mobility of the professionals of socioeconomic strata means of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago of Chile. A study from the dimension of the Recognition Socio-Labour


Héctor Rivera Vergara


The present article proposes to investigate from a qualitative approach, the influence of the recognition partner-labour in the processes of social mobility of the professionals of socioeconomic strata means of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago of Chile. The motivation for investigating this phenomenon is born to observe the difficulties that presents a group of Chilean professionals, characterised for being first familiar generation in obtaining a university title, in his mechanisms of insertion and integration to the labor field, which have not been accompanied of the recognition socio-labor expected in the exert e of his functions, experiencing according to his own affirmations, a feeling of social descent and a feeling of frustration and insecurity in his professional capacities. Of the same way, the interest for tackling this study from the dimension of the recognition socio- labor, is due to that the revised theory on social mobility, it refers mostly to quantifications in the distribution of the economic and social welfare of a person or group in a determinate time, delivering results very notable and useful, but that do not tackle the significant dimension of the problem.


Keywords: Social Mobility, Recognition Socio-Labor, Social Mobility Frustrated

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Reproduction conditions of labour power as form of the specificity of capital accumulation in Argentina: concrete evidences since the mid-70’s


Fernando Cazón,  Damián Kennedy y Facundo Lastra


This article is framed in the debate regarding the relationship between the differentiation of labor power’s conditions of reproduction and the characteristics of the productive structure in Latin America. We analyze the evolution of this relationship in Argentina, by recognizing the specificity of this country in the global capital accumulation. Firstly, we describe the form in which the new international division of labor is expressed inside this country and we conclude that it implies the need for new compensation for the productive lag of the national economy: the sale of labor power below its value. Secondly, we present evidence on the relationship between the specificity of national accumulation and reproduction of the labor power, which allows us to conclude that a portion of the Argentinean working class is consolidated in its role of relative surplus population.

Keywords: labor power, relative surplus population, economic cycle, land rent - Argentina


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The “Cabildo” Has Opened: The Front of Unions State and the Fall of Ricardo de Aparici as a Resistance Gestation. 1987-1990


Mauro Berenagan


Since 1987, in Jujuy Province began a social and workers struggle that generated the organizational conditions for the “Resistance” throughout decade. The Front of Unions State, with its leading figure of Carlos “El Perro” Santillan, were the main support of a protest cycle that provoke the fall of eight governors in ten years. In the present paper, I intend to inquire the begining of that “organic crisis”, reconstructing with primary sources and with the help of some gramscianan tools one event  that has not been fairly studied by historiography: the Open “Cabildo” of 1990. The event were the consecuences of a multisectoral workers impulse and a new ways of protest. With more than 25.000 people gathered in La Tablada Stadium, the “Cabildo” provoked the fall of Governor Ricardo de Aparici, and it assumed the characteristics of the resistance against the neoliberal policies in the country.

Keywords: Jujuy, open cabildo, Carlos El Perro Santillán, neoliberalism, front of unions state


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The Golden Age in the representations of ex workers from the Swift meat plant of Berisso


Eleonora Bretal


During my research about the ex workers´s modes of remembering their labour past in the Swift meat plant of Berisso and of representing the history of the meat industry workers, I distinguished the construction of the following native periodization: the english period, the military period and the closed Swift period. I interviewed thirty (30) ex workers between the years 2010 and 2013. In this text I analyze their representations about the first of the three periods. I explain who the english were to the ex workers and I show their appreciations of them. I enquire which aspects organize the idealization of the english period as a Golden Age and I explore the cracks and contradictions undercovered by the nostalgia for the desired past. I identify how the golden past is configured not only in relation to the present (with the utopias projected to a near future) but also in connection with a critical past to the ex workers. I hold the idea that the english period is part of a selective tradition, which set aside another pasts, characteristics and experiencies.

Keywords: working class, social representations, golden age

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The value of work in the policies of "Social and Solidarity Economy". An approach to the conditions of production and reproduction of their recipient


Sofía vitali


This article deals with social and labor policies framed in development called "Social and Solidarity Economy" from which the "work culture" and "decent work" as part of its discursive basis is recovered. These proposals contain various meaning around the work, giving rise to new forms of work and organization, as well as forms of linkage between state actors and beneficiaries.

Beneficiaries who participate in the various state programs of the Secretariat for Solidarity Economy of the Municipality of Rosario perform different productive activities as a defensive response to the retraction of the formal labor market suffered by them during the 90's and the 2001 crisis.

In this sense, we want to analyze the value of work , stressing the formal provisions of these policies from the analysis of the daily production of different experiences, focusing on the conditions of production and reproduction of these sectors.

Keywords: socio-productive policies, social economy, labour, value


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Labour, trade unions and contestation to large infraestructural projects in the Brazilian Amazon 


José Ricardo Ramalho

Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro


From the 1960s onwards, the Brazilian Amazon witnessed a new cycle of economic expansion. This expansion redefined the development strategies for the region and had significant repercussion of the environment and local social groups. This texts analyses one of the projects implemented since then, the Grande Carajás Program, which stimulated the settlement of pig iron producing industries throughout the Estrada de Ferro Carajás, and of metallurgical plants in the municipalities of Marabá (State of Pará) and Açailandia (State of Maranhao). The article shows the dual impact of these policies. On the one hand it increased regional economic activity, the size of cities and towns, and created new jobs. On the other, it significantly affected the precarization of labour, environmental degradation and offenses to human rights. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of the labour markets through the actions of the metalworkers’ union and other social movements in the municipalities of Açailandia, especially the struggles around industrial unemployment and campaigns against ‘slave labour’.

Key Words: Amazon; Precarization; Labour; Development


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The multiple faces of precarious work and trade unionism: the brazilian experience 


Fernando Ramalho Martins

Jacob Carlos Lima


The article discusses the precarization of labour in Brazil in the current context, with a consideration for the historical characteristics of the labour market in which not more than 50% of workers have received social security benefits and experienced formal working conditions. Precarization should be understood as a process which manifests itself in a diversity of forms, without been uniformed or absolute. New occupations can incorporate important rights, which does not make them less precarious from the point of view of working conditions. The processes of outsourcing and others can also be coupled with access to rights without making the tasks themselves less precarious. The article incorporates empirical evidence from research on the service sectors (banks-- information technology--clothing industry and automobile industry).


Key words: precarization; Brazil; trade unions; services


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Recent transformations in labour process at the Pampas agricultural production: limits and potentialities of the ‘soybeanization’ process 


Gastón Caligaris


This paper examines the recent material transformations that took place in the agrarian labour process in the Pampas in order to provide empirical evidence and elements for the analysis to the existing debate within the agrarian studies regarding the production and social implications of those transformations. For this purpose, an analysis on the so-called biotech revolution in agricultural production is provided. Then, we examine the case of agricultural production in the Pampas. Finally, we briefly consider the implications of these changes for the historical course of agriculture production in general and in the Pampas in particular. The main conclusions arrived at are: a) that the so-called biotech revolution has involved a very limited transformation of natural constraints that characterize agricultural production and, consequently, it is still far from overcome the barriers that historically limited the economic development of this productive sector; b) that the material changes occurred in the labour process related to biotechnology have a generalist character in the Pampas; c) that these transformations are inherently connected with the development of chemical and mechanical aspects of the labour process, such as the extensive and intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers and dissemination of zero tillage technique; d) that the mentioned changes in the process of agricultural labour in the Pampas involved a substantial increase in the minimum scale of production and, on account of this presumably, in the scale of agrarian capital.


Keywords: Agrarian labour process; Biotech revolution; Pesticides; Fertilizers; Zero Tillage


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The role of pluriactivity in the persistence of the dairy family farming in the Cuenca Abasto Sur of Buenos Aires 


Patricio Vertiz


Over the last decades the dairy production of Argentina evidences great modifications, related to strong processes of technological change and concentration of the production, leading to a restructuring of the dairy complex with a negative impact over the minor strata of production. In this regard, one of the strategies persistence of small units has historically been the pluriactivity, which involves the combination of farming and non-farming activities, inside and outside the farms.

The aim of this work is to identify the diversity of types of pluriactivity and its importance over the persistence of the dairy family farming in Chascomús and Lezama (province of Buenos Aires). We also aim to specify which types of pluriactivity are predominant, the reasons that lead producers to implement this strategy and the functions it performs, establishing connections with other works related as well.

The methodology of investigation consists of the analysis of semi-structured interviews to key informants and dairy farmers, combining with the revision of agricultural censuses, scientific research and technical reports about the dairy production in general and about the area of study in particular.

The results of this work show the presence of the following forms of pluriactivity: the manufacture of dairy products, the work outside the farms and marketing, being the first two types the most predominant. Generally, they include mostly agricultural occupations which belong to the most traditional type. Regarding the role played by pluriactivity, it seems that the combination of activities is associated with functions of persistence or reproduction either than accumulation of capital. The conclusion arises that due to the low production scales of the establishments analyzed, and to the low production rates in some cases, it is likely that these units could not  avoid the combination of these activities to persist in their production.


Key words: pampean family farming; pluriactivity; strategies of persistence; dairy production


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Characterization of family farming based on a rural development programme: the case of the PRODERNEA recipients (1999-2007)


Marcos Urcola


In the current debate on family farming, opposing views arise regarding who the involved subjects are, the type of support they should be given and the role that this sector should perform in the regional development. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this debate with the analysis of information collected in the framework of the implementation of a rural development programme. The Rural Development Project for the Northeastern Provinces of Argentina (PRODERNEA in Spanish, 1999-2007) was taken as a reference in order to contribute with empirical elements regarding the characterization and identification of family farming and to generate new questions and hypothesis on the type of political instruments targeted at the sector. The selection of this programme enabled the concrete study of the family producers identified as recipients of its actions, and offered the possibility of reflecting upon their main problems and operational tensions. This paper presents a methodological framework with a qualitative approach and a flexible design based on case studies and the tradition of the Grounded Theory, implementing the analysis and systematization of primary documentary sources and open informal interviews to those in charge of the technical management of the programme and the organizations of producers-beneficiaries.


Key words: Family farming; Rural development; PRODERNEA


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Class and Informality in the Class Structure of Argentina: Families, employment trajectories and class identity among formal and informal proletarians (2007).


Rodolfo Elbert


The prevailing class analysis of Latin American societies defines informality as a class cleavage that divides the working class. In this view, labor fragmentation has created structural divisions among workers, which are translated into different life experiences, collective action dynamics and material interests of formal and informal workers (Portes, 1985; Portes y Hoffman, 2003). This article is part of a broader research aimed at testing the “class differences” hypothesis through a study of the cultural, organizing and structural links between the formal and the informal working class (Elbert, 2013). Do formal and informal workers self-identify as part of the same social class? What is the effect of ties across the informality border in the class identity of individuals in the working class? I use survey data from the “Encuesta Nacional de Estratificación Social” (CEDOP-UBA). In the study I provide evidence of strong structural connections between the formal and the informal proletariat, which include past work experiences and family ties across the formal-informal boundary. This confirms that workers’ class self-identification is a consequence not only of their structural position but also of their lived experience.


Key words: informality; social structure; class identity; Argentina


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Latin American trade unionism at a new crossroads. From the centrality of the State to multinational corporations

Juan Montes Cató

Bruno Dobrusin


The trade union movement in Argentina and Brazil is facing a new crossroads. The neodevelopmentalist governments of the last decade strengthened the presence of the State, although this have proven insufficient to shift the productive structure and influence the balance of capital-labour relations. The intervention of transnational capital forces labour to reconsider its actions, historically conditioned by a corporatist outlook centered on the State. The contributions of Nicos Poulantzas allow for rethinking labour’s relation with the State and debating the strategic shifts that this new context requires


Key Words: Labour movement; Corporativism;  State;  Multinationals

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What's new in the Argentine unionism? Labor relations and union reconfiguration during kirchneristas governments

   Marcelo Delfini y Patricia Ventrici


The governance process of the last decade had as its central element overcoming the biggest crisis that Argentina underwent, in which economic dynamics enabled the creation of employment and overcoming the high levels of unemployment that accompanied the Argentine development since the mid- 90. The decade of the recovery of employment levels, the vitality of collective bargaining and increased labor unrest again placed the union player at the center of the political scene. In this paper we analyze the dynamics of association in Argentina in the last decade from three dimensions of its institutional practice. After raising an analytical description of the economic process context and its impact on the world of work, we address the prevailing logic of collective bargaining in the period, the strategies of alliances and conflicts made by the unions and the development of union representation in the workplace. The first two, analyze the policies of the leaders of the organizations, the third tries to delve into the internal political dynamics of the unions putting eyes on the shop floor.


Key words: Syndicalism; Labor Relations; Kirchnerism



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Social conflict, cooperativism and precarious labor. The case of Cooperativa Cartoneros del Sur in Bahía Blanca (2007- 2014)

Pablo Ariel Becher

Juan Manuel Martín


The present study is aimed to characterize and analyze the socio-economic relations in the solid urban waste collection process performed by social actors involved in a cooperative of cartoneros  in the city of Bahía Blanca, and the struggles they have had to carry on in order to work in that condition.

Fundamentally, this work will emphasize on the origin of this kind of entrepreneurship since the year 2007 to the present, evidencing the objective conditions of cooperative work and its relationship with informal and precarious work. The qualitative and quantitative methodologies express the correlation among different variables that allow us to get closer to comprehending the functioning of cooperatives within the net of garbage collection and the role of cartoneros.


Keywords: Cooperatives of cartoneros- Labor conflicts- Informal economy


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“Because I work, i work well”: job trajectories and perceptions in the narrations of workers residing in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires.


Guillermina Comas

María Rosa Cicciari

María Berenice Rubio


The article reconstructs labor trajectories of workers residing in a segregated urban area from the third cordon of Buenos Aires from a biographic perspective.

Situations such as obtain a registered job, a formal job change to an informal one, losing a job, or remain in an informal job, may change the subjective assessments of those individuals. On the basis of the narrations of workers, about constitutive job -present and past- actions, the intention of the article is to account the built sense from the interpretations of the actors about their itineraries.

The analysis answer the questions about the organizations ways the perceptions and actions assumed at the trajectories development, characterized by horizontal or descendent movements in contexts of social vulnerability.

Qualitative analysis was performed by a set of interviews about their labour situation before 2014. The narrations were analyzed with Atlas ti.  


Keywords: Labor trajectories; Biographic narrations; Labour informality


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Production of agricultural machinery in Argentina: Comparative Analysis of the Dynamics of National conglomerates and Global Value Chains.


Federico Langard


The work presented here is based on the doctoral thesis Consolidación de cadenas globales de valor y desarrollo de clusters locales: el caso de la maquinaria agrícola en Argentina (Consolidation of global value chains and development of local clusters: the case of the agricultural machinery in Argentina), defended on December 2014. This article presents some productive configurations, adopted by the production of certain agricultural equipment. Configurations linked to schemes in which transnational capital participates in some way. The analysis is based on comparing the segment of seeders manufacturing companies, a cluster of domestic capital SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises), harvesters and tractors producing companies, industry directly linked to transnational capital. Additionally, it goes into detail on the study of this industry transnational nexus with the analysis of two in-depths interviews with two foreign firms producing in the country. In this way, some behavior characteristics of the transnational corporations (TNCs) in the agricultural machinery production and in Argentina are exhibited.


Keywords: agricultural machinery industry in Argentina, Transnational Corporations, Global Value Chains


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Labour market and trade unionism in restructured agricultural productions in Argentina

Guillermo Neiman

The restructuring of agriculture modifies the structure and functioning of labor markets in the sector, putting labor unrest in a renewed context and raising other challenges for unionism. Labor unions´ practices among workers in agriculture have been as much episodic and reserved for specific regions or productions. In the context of the current process of restructuring and globalization particularly for some agricultural and food productions, it is possible to identify a growing labor unrest, the emergence of some new mostly local organizations and the deployment of union actions. State intervention in certain circumstances related to the labor market and conflict also is novel.This article analyzes for the case of Argentina, recent expressions of labor unrest and union actions in agriculture and its relationship with current labor markets and public policies aimed to regulate these markets and to improve workers´ labor and living conditions.


Key words: Agriculture; Labor; Unionization; Labor conflicts


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Union density and representation of trade union centers in Brazil


Iram Jácome Rodrigues

Mario Henrique Guedes Ladosky

Jonas Tomazi Bicev


This article discusses the participation and representation of trade unions and trade union confederations in Brazil during the recent decades. Using data from the National House Survey (PNAD-IBGE) for the period 1992-2014, the text traces a profile of unionized labour in Brazil by region and gender. Furthermore, using affiliation data to trade union confederations from the Ministry of Labour (MTE), the text discusses the main aspects regarding participation and representation of the confederations. The assertions regarding representation are based on the number of affiliated members by sector, the trade union density by economic activity and by region. A caveat is necessary in that the databases differ from each other in terms of methodological process, but the data converges in terms of the main issues related to trade union density in Brazil


Key Words: Trade Unions; Labour Confederations; Brazil; Trade Union Density; Workers


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A proyect for the Argentinian Nation. The Rivadavia’s politics and the Nation-


Santiago Rossi Delaney


In this article, we inquiry the social basis of Rivadavia’s politics, considering the elaboration and conformation of a national project which tried to include all the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata in one political structure.

Our national historiography focused on the reforms and transformations of the period: the clerical, electoral and military reforms, also some important resolutions such as the enfiteusis and the Baring Brother’s loan in 1824. However, there’s no a balance sheet of the Rivadavia’s politics, which allow us to understand the social character of the Unitarismo’s project. We therefore try to reveal if there was an organic connection between the different politics, considering the enfiteusis, the Baring Brother’s loan and the war against Brazil as the main steps of the project.

In regard to enfiteusis, we will use the information of the leasing of lands of the Escribanía General of the Buenos Aires’ Government, with the purpose of analyze the consequences of its application in that province and the attempt of imposing the enfiteusis all around the nation. Attending to Baring Brother’s loan, we compare the incomes and expenses as a result of its contract, with the State’s budget of the Cuentas Mayores de Caja y Contaduría de Buenos Aires, in order to calculate the importance of the loan and its cancellation regarding to the money under control of the Estate. Finally, we will refer to the War against Brazil, a conflict which tested the national project. We will analyze the Listas de Revistas and the expenses destined to war, in order to enquiry the Estate efforts in the conflict and its importance in the destiny of the national project.


Keywords: Emphyteusis; Baring Brothers; War Brasil; State



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From above and from below. Governments, ruling class and labor and social movements in the redesign of the Latin-American integration

Julián Kan

At the beginning of the 21st century the Latin America countries left aside the commercialist perspective concerning their area of entailment, giving way to a repoliticization of the regional integration. This occurred due to the fact that some governments began to question, in major or minor depth, the political and economic neoliberal scene of the decade of nineteen-ninety. Nevertheless, from a critical outlook on the projects of regional integration like the MERCOSUR and the negotiations for the FTAA and of the international relations in general, we understand that the decisions of the governments in foreign and regional policy are in keeping with the most general social relations. In consequence, we propose to analyze here the relationship between civil society and regional integration, approaching stances and actions of diverse fractions and sectors of the dominant and subaltern classes which had influence on the redesign of the Latin-American integration. The hypothesis that guides this paper is that that redesign, in particular the reorientation towards the MERCOSUR and the rejection of the FTAA, were a result of both the challenging "from above" by the questioning of the dominant local classes, and also of the challenging "from below", that is to say, of the labor and social movements of the region.

Keywords: work; emerging factors; suffering-happiness.

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The dreams of reason: crisis of meaning and egoistic suicide


This article seeks to investigate the theoretical and analytical consequences that the study of egoistic suicide has on Emile Durkheim's perspective. In order to do that, it begins with a reconstruction of the distinction between egoism and anomie, highlighting the importance of egoism, often downplayed by secondary literature, and its relation to the crisis of meaning. With this objective in mind, the difference between passive and active social spheres is pointed as a key element to understand that conceptual pair. In addition, the social genesis of the quest for meaning is traced in the author’s postulates, leading to the study of the historical development of religions and of the individual manifestations of egoism (melancholy, languor, solipsism). In third place, it studies how the historical development of reason points to the emergence of a symbolic idealism linked to lack of integration resulted from a series of processes: the disarticulation between thought and action and between sophisticated beliefs and practices; the loss of a durable object (representational and 'mundane') and of a totalizing representation; and the absence of common social objectives. Lastly, the article examines how sociology, as science of the social, can intervene on pathologies related to the 'dreams of reason' characteristic of egoistic currents (passive and solipsist; active and destructive). Thus, it outlines the different attempts made by the author to find, in modernity, new ways to articulate representations of the totality of society with daily practices, capable of providing meaning to rationalized individuals. In this way, the role of the state, of collective rituals, ideals of humanity and patriotism can be reread in light of the questions and theoretical proposals that are at play in the analysis of egoistic suicide.

Keywords: Egoistic Suicide, Meaning, Symbolic Idealism, Totality, Durkheim

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 Local potential for integral approach of child labour in partido de general Pueyrredon, Argentina

 María Eugenia LABRUNÉE, María M. LAGUYÁS, M. Eugenia GOÑI

The aim is to expose the conditions of social protection system intended for children at the local level to effectively address situations of child labor detected in the Municipality of General Pueyrredon. The importance of social dialogue processes as a framework for recognizing and positioning the issues in public and social agenda is emphasized here.

After a theoretical section about the current look of childhood social policies Child Labour, its causes and the current regulations for the eradication and prevention of this problem, as well as promoting and protecting the rights of children and adolescents, presents a diagnosis of child labor situations, mainly those more relevant economic activities linked to the party. Then delves into a description, from a comprehensive view of all the institutional frame or promotion and protection system of rights of children and adolescents, their relevance, responsibilities, opportunities and actions against child labor, protocols force and its effective implementation, as well as commitments from all areas.

This development is the result of a task systematization of information in the party, a specific diagnosis generated from ILO, MTSS, and the Municipality of General Pueyrredon and systematization of primary qualitative information about institutional frame having interference the possibility of providing answers to the problem. Is part of a process of dialogue and social construction that takes place in the town, the Interagency Committee for the Eradication of Child Labour and Protection of Adolescent labor in the Municipality of General Pueyrredon

Keywords: Children Labour, Social Protection System, Mar del Plata - General Pueyrredon, Social dialogue

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Women participation at Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero. Characteristics of a growing feminization

 Noelia ARANDA

In this paper it proposes to describe in numbers the picture that represents the participation of women within the Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero. For this it uses the analysis of statistical data in order to show a comparative scenario on the evolution of the University population by sex for the years 2000 to 2010.

The study responds to the related concern with carry out a research allowing to gain insight into approximate with respect to participation women within the University, its advances and setbacks. This problem has been studied by various theories which enhance the meaning of such participation, since it is considered as a segment particularly of women who, even with certain difficulties, have managed to gain access to university education. The results show us that this University responds to trends in which manifests a continuous growth of the inclusion of women in the University area marking a high prominence and while persist differential elections marked by gender stereotypes, increasingly are more those who show preferences for areas of study which were traditionally considered as male; reached even better achievements.

We have then here to establish a panoramic and critical vision in this regard, to strengthen the analysis and understanding of the issues supported the review of statistical data.

Keywords: Gender; Education; feminine participation; University

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Territorios de violencia patriarcal: doce años de femicidios en Santiago del Estero (2002-2014)

 Cecicilia CANEVARI y Rosa ISAC

This paper presents an examination of the phenomenon of extreme violence towards women (and transwomen) in Santiago del Estero. Towards this end a matrix of data is analyzed that contains the information of women who were murdered, and the characteristics of the crimes. The sources of information for the crimes are two local newspapers. To make a comparison to national rates of crime, data published since 2008 by La Casa del Encuentro (ONG) is presented. Santiago del Estero has the highest rate of female murders in the whole nation, doubling the national rate. Through this comparison of empirical evidence a deeper understanding of the problem is sought. Also, the existing legal framework and public policies of the three branches of government concerning violence towards women are given. From within Santiago’s historic structural context some hypotheses are proposed, and finally an approach is set forth using feminist theories that are key to understanding the patriarchal foundations that sustain the subordination of women in our societies.

Key words: femicide- patriarchal violence - Santiago del Estero- femicide rate.

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The wage-productivity relationship: wage incentives in collective agreements


In this article I analyze productivity-based wage incentives included in collective agreements signed in the Argentinean manufacturing industry during 2003-2012. First, the long-term comparative evolution of real wages and labor productivity in Argentina is examined to provide the historical context to wage-productivity bargaining. Next, precedents to wage-productivity bargaining in this country are discussed. Third, I focus in 2003-2012 to analyze how frequently were productivity-based wage incentives included in collective agreements, the incidence of the incentives based on individual performance and that of those based on collective productivity, the level (industry-wide or firm) at which they had been convened, and the degree of specification of the method to calculate productivity and the wage premium. Last, the limitations hindering the evaluation of the effects, at different levels, of the examined productivity-based wage incentives are discussed. Results suggest that those wage incentives were negotiated predominantly at firm level, which permitted a high degree of specification of the methodology for calculating the wage premium, and were most often based on collective rather than individual productivity, and therefore their potential for preserving or increasing the wage share in the enterprises´ value added would be greater than that for fostering wage differentiation within each firm. Nonetheless, this form of wage bargaining was confined to a small number of firms within each manufacturing industry, despite the fact that the signing trade unions operate in a relatively large spectrum of industrial activities. This limited diffusion would derive in part from the restrictions faced by wage-productivity bargaining in high inflation regimes such as that characterizing the Argentinean economy.

Keywords: wage incentives, collective agreements, collective bargaining, wages, labor productivity

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"White Women" in Corographic Commission. A fabling reading.

 Pascale MOLINER

"Mujeres blancas" (white women) is an image of the Corographic Commission of Agustín Codazzi in Colombia. The image represents, in the mid-nineteenth century, two light-skinned women dressed in European style, and a dark-skinned woman covered by a large mantle, the latter located at the back, and looking in the opposite direction. Speaking of a "fabling reading”, the author uses a narrative methodology that goes beyond the explicit content of the work to bridge gender, class, race and sexuality. This ancient image is used as a "pretext" to interrogate sociocultural dimensions that are still active today. The author questions, particularly, the role of the unnamed black woman in the process of construction of the white femininity and as a disguised erotic figure. She brings her presence as a hidden object from the white men’s desire, as a disobedient servant for the madams of the bourgeois houses, and as the mother-nurse excluded from the first infants’ erotic emotions. The conclusion of the article is a reflection about race performance as a performance of the ruling class in the Colombian society.

Keywords: Colombia, hegemonic femininity, bleaching, hybridity, race melancholy, servitude

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 Tuberculosis, suffering, and everyday life in vulnerable and slums neighborhoods in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

María Victoria Castilla

 Based on the preliminary results of an ethnographic research have gone through since early 2010 and it is clear from other previous research, this paper analyzes and discusses the logic of care, suffer and suffer from tuberculosis in subjects living in slums and vulnerable, given the set of relations established between bodies, State and the power dynamics embedded in the daily lives of these neighborhoods. The methodological approach used in the research is the ethnographic method including in-depth interviews and participant observation in various neighborhoods of AMBA, many of whom have not shared the specific urban design characteristic settlement locally called "villas”.

Key words: tuberculosis; everyday life; marginalization; vulnerability; power

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Managerial Careers and Internationalization of Elites. The Study of the CEOs of Transnational Corporations in Argentina during the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century

Alejandro DULITZKY

This article represents a step forward in the knowledge about the business elite in Argentina, and their relationship with the economic transformations that took place during the last quarter of the twentieth century. Specifically, we will study the transformations that took place in the organization of the elite formed by the CEOs of the most important transnational corporations (TNCs) that operated in the country between 1976 and 2001. Based on the study of the careers of these CEOs, we will argue that during the 1990s, it is possible to observe an increment on the degree of internationalization shown by the group in general, with the exception of a small group of CEOs that preserves strong ties with the local environment and, particularly, with the state. 

Keywords: Elites; Transnational Corporations; Managerial careers; Internationalization; Transnationalization

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Labor process and internationalization of capital: global determinants of technological “backwardness” in the Argentine automotive industry in the 1950s and 1960s

Alejandro Luis FITZSIMONS

This article explores the hypothesis that the low technological level of the Argentine automotive industry (and other South American cases)emerged from theglobal dynamics of capital accumulation, challenging the institutional approach that favors ‘internal’ factors. Following a particular reading of the Marxian critique of political economy, it is argued that the ‘automation’ of the labor process initiated at the global level in the late 1940s had two different implications for the ‘internationalization’ of capital in the industry. On the one hand, itstimulated technical progress in East Asian countries due to the characteristics and costs of local laborforce. On the other hand, it created the necessity, particularly to US individual capitals, to relocate increasingly obsolete machinery to countries —like Argentina— where the appropriation of a portion of the abundant agrarian rent by industrial capital allowed tooffset thetechnological backwardness.The article concludes by suggesting that further investigation grounded on this approach should integrate political and institutional factors as mediations or forms of realization­—but not as independent causes­—of the differentiation between countries arising from the process of global technological development.

Keywords: late industrialization; economic development; automation

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Confrontation, cooptation and political dispute. Strikes and ruptures in the state unions between 1987 and 1990 in Chubut


In this article we aboard the strategy developed by the unions of state workers, especially the unions with major number of members during the last years of the '80s. This years have very importance in the province, in the context of a strong change at the national level, covering the crisis and change of the social economic structure which had previously built, the crisis of the provincial government in 1987, the assumption of a government of opposite political sign, and the resignation of the new governor in 1990, as result of a strong cycle of social conflicts.

In this context the provincial state went through a deeply crisis. During this crisis the state unions were developing various strategies, articulating cooptation and confrontation with the political power of turn. At the same years this unions developed intern struggles and divisions for the different political lines, which in some cases bring more force and in others mined the process of construction of their unions.

From this approach we try to understand the role that these unions met in social conflict, according to their construction processes and their confrontations. We observe how the process of social conflict that ends in 1990's "chubutazo", and the different political projects to the provincial state that there were in competition.

Keywords: confrontation; cooptation; strategy; unions; Chubut

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Impact caused by the transformations in the labor market and in social security upon the health insurance system for the people residing in urban areas in Argentina
between the years 2003 and 2010

Matías Salvador BALLESTEROS

Argentina´s Healthcare System provides its citizens with three different types of Healthcare Insurances (Public Social, Social Security and Private).   Each insurance provides differential coverage and this may affect the chances of the people to receive proper access to the Healthcare Service. In this article, we analyze the consequences that have arisen from the affiliation to the different types of Care Insurance and  the changes that took place between the years 2003 and 2010 in the labor market, the social security system and in the regulatory framework of mono taxpayers.  We have based our analysis in the results of the Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH) of the years 2003 and 2010 and in the results taken from the Encuesta de Utilización y Gastos en Servicios de Salud (EUGSS) for the years 2005 and 2010.

The results of the analysis show that these changes have had a major impact and have considerably increased the number of affiliates particularly to the Social Security Care Service.  However, we also point out the process limitations to provide to a high number of people with an alternative care system to the Universal Healthcare Insurance provided by the Public Care Service. As a result we observe that a big number of the new Social Security System taxpayers were already affiliated due to the switch of Healthcare Service carried out by another family member.

Key words: healthcare sistem, healthcare insurance, labor market, social security


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“With the own stamp”: singularity and innovation in cases of self-entrepreneurships of fashion design in Buenos Aires city

 María Eugenia CORREA

The last decade has been characterised because of a high expression of artistic and cultural productions linked to the creation of self-entrepreneurships of design, in diverse points of the country, as in Buenos Aires city as well.

In this context, the independent scene has configured the diffusion of numerous entrepreneurships of fashion design, related to accessories and dress created into a deployment of originality, crafts and innovative development applied to the created pieces. In this sense, the use of textile material of discard, the same as non-conventional ones, innovative formats, craft and original designs, and other elements contribute to the search of distinction in the construction of the own trade mark, invoicing creativity, knowledge, research and action oriented to a ‘giving self an identity’ in the path of recognition.        

Design as symbolic object of distinctive value, in a social space where the non-massive products are recognised, is offered as a way of giving an identity to the user, consolidating her/his singularity and own personality.

According to that, this article is oriented to reflect about the identity construction in terms of distinction and innovation from different productions of fashion design, analysing cases of self-entrepreneurships of Buenos Aires city.

Key words: self-entrepreneurship, design, identity, innovation, singularity, creative productions

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Notions of "workers' democracy" and "union bureaucracy" on the left of the 70. A comparison between the Peronist left and the Marxist left


Rafael Farace  y Gabriela Jäkel

This paper examines the notions of workers' democracy and union bureaucracy used by left-wing organizations during the 1970s through the analysis of documentary sources such as flyers, newsletters, newspaper and party documents. It will examine in particular the cases of two Peronist organizations (Montoneros y Peronismo de Base) and a Marxist organization (Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores – Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo), establishing comparisons that show the importance of ideological allegiance and political strategy conditioning of the senses given to bureaucracy and union democracy. Moreover, the study will focus publications in 1975 because in the context of workers' struggle sessions that year developed and deepened concentrated heat debates and conceptions unprecedented experience of the working class.

Keywords: bureaucracy union, workers' democracy, left, Marxism, peronism

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Union organization in the workplace and left trends at the recent Argentina: Kraft-Mondelez (ex Terrabusi)'s Internal Commission

 Mariela Cambiasso

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the union organization in the workplace and left parties considering the case of the Internal Commission of Kraft-Mondelez (former Terrabusi) food factory, located in the northern area of Gran Buenos Aires. To achieve this objective, is recovered a recent historiographical debate that argues that the Internal Commissions did not arise with the triumph of Peronism, but rather its origins can be traced from the early 1930s, when there was a strong emergence of the union organization at workplace in different unions and sectors; a process in which the Communist Party (CP) - predominantly- but also other left political trends had a powerful incidence.

The article is divided into two parts. In the first, are indicated some of the central points of the historiographical debate about the relationship between Internal Commissions and left trends in Argentina during the years preceding to the triumph of Peronism; and second, are analyzed the particularities exhibited by this relationship in the case of Kraft-Mondelez’s Internal Commission, considering the relationship between the Internal Commissions and the company policies about them, the conflict, and the strategies of the involved groups.

Keywords: base unionism, left trends, conflict, strategy

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The category ‘work’ under construction: Socio-historical and cultural components of the category ‘work’ from the point of view of the small farmers of Santa Rosa village,
municipality of Dos Arroyos, department of L. N. Alem, Misiones, Argentina.

Laura Verónica ANGER

In this paper it is analyzed how the category ‘work’ is built in a specific social space: Santa Rosa village, which pertains to the municipality of Dos Arroyos, department of L. N. Alem, province of Misiones, Argentina. It aims at reconstructing this notion from the point of view of local small farmers and at identifying which elements take part in the configuration of its diverse and changing meaning, including those emerging factors as current state politics. These objectives were addressed thought anthropological fieldwork, which included interviews and participant observation from November 2011 to April 2014. This fieldwork allowed identifying the local social space, the social agents living there, their livelihood strategies, the relationships that exist among them and the way in which they symbolize their lifeworlds and the feelings of sadness and happiness they experience. Thus, the complex and entangled social relationships related to agrarian production were described. Within that social space, in the context of survival strategies and social relationships aiming at satisfying the material and symbolic needs of the small farmers’ lifeworlds, diverse meanings relating to what ‘work’ means are constructed. All in all, in this paper I describe the meanings relating to ‘work’ and how they are translated into social practice.

Keywords: work; emerging factors; suffering-happiness

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From the salted meat establishment to the extract meat factory: Transformation of the working processes in meat industry, Entre Ríos, 1864-1935

Rodolfo LEYES

This paper pretends to show the productive changes, focusing on conversion of the working process of meat manufacture from mid- 19th century to first decades of the 20th in Entre Ríos province and its effects on the working class. Entre Ríos province has had a remarkable cattle production and for many years it was its main productive activity. The socio-political changes generated as consequence of the Battle of Caseros had its correspondence in the provincial economy, adding several salted meat establishments as valorization spaces of cattle production. This started a technical and capital accumulating process that set up the province as one of the main salted meat manufacturers. When they reached their limit, salted meat establishments began to convert themselves into meat extract factories. This happened at the same time that salted meat establishments changed into cold stores in other provinces. Our work tries to build, from a historical perspective, the transformation of the different labor processes of the meat industry in Entre Ríos, showing the path from simple cooperation and manufacture to modern manufacture, and how they affect the working force involved in it.

Key works: Working processes, capital cumulating, working class, meat manufacture.

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Food Security vs. Food  Sovereignty. Agribusiness model and agri-food question in Argentina

Luciana García Guerreiro y Juan Wahren


In the last years the Argentinean agrarian system has a lot of changes around an advance of agricultural activities where the animal husbandry was most important, economical deregulations, reorientation of the food products for the exportation, an open access to import diverse supplies like agrarian machines, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.; expansion of some transgenic seeds like soya and corn, concentration and centralization of agri-food production, etc. These changes have a strong impact in the Argentinean agrarian structure and in the everyday life of the small farmers and peasants in the context of a radical territorial reorganization in the national scale. In this article we introduce some of the characteristics of this new agrarian model and the links with the “food access” issues in the neoliberal globalization context. In this sense, we analyze the multiple social, political, economical and cultural factors that affect in the food production, distribution and commercialization, as well as in the different meanings around the issues of “food access” based on the debates between the concepts of “Food Sovereignty” and “Food Security”.

Key words: Food Sovereignty, Food Security, Social Movements, Productive Models, Agri-food System


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The milking revolution. Changes in the work process of primary production milk in Argentina, 1980-2007




The object of this study is to reconstruct the history of work processes in the dairy farms to account for the arrival of the great Argentine industry dairy. We start, then, with the question: what are the changes that occur in the production of the good "milk" are? To this end, we focus on analyzing the work process in the main section of the dairy farms: milking. This historical reconstruction of the developed work process, on the one hand, analyzing the specialized journals in the field and on the other, from our fieldwork. This allows us to see, first, the arrival of the great Argentine dairy industry during the 1980s and, second hand, changes in the demand for skills to perform the tasks of milking. We study the work process a perspective that the emphasis  the law of value as a general determinant. Thus, we propose to study what changes he starred in the working process of dairy farms sector and what consequences it had in relation to the workforce.

Key words: labor process, rural work class, dairy farms

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 Ethos and temporality: an anthropology of phenomenological orientation of Bourdieu


 This article describes the research on temporality in Bourdieu´s anthropological studies in Algeria (1958-1964) concerning the link between traditional ethos, structure of temporal consciousness and economic practices in peasant and sub-proletarians. Show that as Bourdieu takes up the notion of ethos, produces an anthropological reelaboration on Husserl´s phenomenological studies on temporality, particularly mediated by Merleau-Ponty´s teaching, discuss other anthropological and economic perspectives in a context of revolution and war. This will contribute to the debate on the phenomenological grounds of the theory of practice, in the context of contemporary anthropology and sociology.

Keywords: temporality, ethos, anthropology, phenomenology, Bourdieu

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 Brazilian journalists vis-à-vis the end of the mandatory dilpoma to practice the profession: rearranging the professional legitimation repertoire

 Fábio Henrique PEREIRA y Kênia MAIA


This paper identifies and analyses how the discourse about education and professional competency among Brazilian journalists is reorganized and rearranged in order to build a professional identity.  We seek to study the discursive strategies used by the journalists as a professional group to defend themselves on threat situations. It also studies the strategies of engagement of the public sphere deployed by social actors engaged in the debates that followed the Brazilian Supreme Court’s (STF) decision in June 2009 to suppress the undergraduate diploma as a mandatory requirement to become a professional journalist. We analyse the texts published during June 2009 on the media criticism website Observatório da Imprensa. The corpus analysis covers the interactive processes and rhetorical models enunciated by journalists, professors, Supreme Court’s justices, labor unions, scientific societies, congressmen, jurists, and website readers. These actors negotiate discursively a definition about what a journalist should be. The article concludes that such interactions seek to maintain a professional journalist identity that can be described through a tension between technical competence and an intellectual task. This tension is present even when the professional status of journalists is questioned by a “crisis” or a “threat” discourse.

Key-words: journalism – professional identity – undergraduate education – argumentative repertory – symbolic interactionism

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 Cultural practices and construction of youth identities nowadays in Argentina



In Argentina since the nineties, the relationship between cultural practices and the construction of youth identities had wide repercussions. Mostly because in this period represents a breakdown of the usual integration spaces -school and laboral fields- in which social classes were incorporated into the societal project headed by the State- Nation, previously to this stage. Despite an complex stage, other spaces of participation encouraged collectives experiencies where young people take on a central role. In this sense, through our work, we seek to account for some of the experiences that young people of the lower classes hold a position on these processes by cultural practices that could be oriented toward a particular political socialization.

Keywords: youth, identity, culture, politic, participation 

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Different views, the same instrument: the figure of the conditionalities in the Argentinean social policy.  The background of a current scenario



 The following paper aims to analyze the origins and development of the conditionalities mechanism in the Argentinean social policies, which had place before the creation of the “Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social”. The conditionalities will be defined as the link between a cash transfer and the requirement of comply with certain behaviors related to health and education practices; in the context of "non-contributory policies. The beneficiaries of the behavior are the children and the responsible adults. The empirical references of this study will be seven initiatives among, legislative projects, popular proposals, pilot test and policies, all implemented between 1997 y 2008. For each of them, the following issues will be considered: the diagnosis that led to the adoption of the conditionalities; the functions attributed to them, the actors involved and the background on which they are based. The analysis will show that the conditionalities are present in policies that imply very diverse views about the receptors and about the motivation for their action.

Keywords: Conditionalities; conditional cash transfer program; political economy; rigths and obligations; human capital; co- responsibility.

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Labour market inclusion of people categorized as disabled.

Some thoughts for a necessary debate


Mauricio Mareño Sempertegui

This article presents some thoughts about labour market inclusion of people socially and culturally categorized as disabled.

The content is based on the following question: Why has the involvement of people with disabilities in the labour market been conceived as problematic? In the first place, the article suggests two possible answers expressed as theses. Then, national employment promotion programmes aimed at this segment of the population are examined, focusing the analysis on the theses previously stated. In the conclusions, it is stated that even though the question that structures the article can be interpreted as naive, it constitutes a fundamental question to analyse the phenomenon of disability and its links to the labour market from a human rights perspective. It also suggests that these two theses reveal the main barriers to employability and labour market inclusion of people with disabilities. It makes reference to cultural barriers, i.e. social representations, ideas and beliefs about employability, disability, people defined as disabled and their possibilities of employability that are deeply rooted in popular belief. The article states that addressing these barriers is of essential importance to approach the core of the problem.

Keywords: Labour market inclusion - employability quality and conditions – accessibility -  disability


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Social and solidarity economy, Work and Capitalism. Relationship between modes of work and pattern of accumulations in the government of the labor force


José Gabriel Giavedoni

The goal of the present paper is offer a theoretical reflection motivated by the recent experiences of social and solidarity economy, i.e. leads us a practical concern in the theoretical inquiry on the problem of 'work' in capitalism. In this way, the intention is to analyze the relationship between the government of the labor force, forms of work in the social economy and modes of capital accumulation. We understand that the new ways of working that arise in contemporary capitalism, it is not enough for them to be analyzed in terms of dysfunctions of the market from which communities find ways of survival, nor enough that they are observed as pockets with the potential to become alternative forms of production. We believe necessary to account for the way in which it is thought the "work" in the literature on social economy in order to focus more specifically some relationships in the forms of work in social economy and the new patterns of capital accumulation.

Keywords: social and solidarity economy - work - capitalism


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Senses of work and domestic life organization by polices of the Province of Buenos Aires


Sabrina Calandrón


This article analyzes the characterizations of police activity as a job, describing the perceptions of members of a punctual security force: the Police of the Province of Buenos Aires. Throughout the paper, we analyze the site of the activity of the police through his career. This allows the identification of relevant job characteristics such as economic stability, social security grants and future projections. However, the coexistence of dynamics supported in the police bureaucratic system and those that are inclined towards the personalization of labor relations, are also studied. Finally, conceptions of the family and the logic of moral responsibilities towards it obtained a central place in the development and meaning of work in the police.

Keywords: Police – Work – Family - Domestic Economy


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The construction of the migrant subject in public policies. A study of two municipalities of the east of Salta Province


Soraya Ataide


In Salta Province, as well as in other Provinces of Argentina, Bolivian immigrants have inserted mainly in the horticulture activity, aimed to fresh consumption of vegetables for the local market. Particularly, in some areas of the Province, the presence of Bolivian immigrants in all the stages of production is observed. Some of them are currently producers (land owners or tenants). Within this group, there are people who have managed to capitalize their production and have in corporated modules or greenhouses, a pressurized irrigation system, and hybrid seeds; that is to say, they have introduced the use of  technology making the difference with another group that develop “field production”. In addition, and articulating with both groups, there are the farmhand and tenant workers from Bolivian origin too.

In this scenario, this paper analyzes the ways in which the diverse public policies at national, provincial and local level related to the horticulture activity construct the immigrant subject. The study is carried out in two municipalities from the east of Salta Province. To this purpose, it is examined the political agenda of different public institutions; the actions taken as well as the public servants’ documents and discourses; the representativeness of the actors in the arenas where policies are shaped; and the perception of the immigrant worker present in them. In general, a tendency to make invisible the heterogeneity of roles of Bolivian immigrants in the horticulture activity is observed. In other words, the invisibility of them refers to the social class differences, and especially, the precarious labor condition of farmhand and tenant workers in this type of production.

Keywords:  Public policies - Subject - Immigrants - Bolivian workers

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 The territory of corruption: domination and resistance in a neighborhood of Buenos Aires


Paula Boniolo


This article analyzes how corruption schemes operate in a popular neighborhood of Great Buenos Aires. We will place this analysis in the context of social relations based on domination / subordination in which these schemes are inserted; also we will study the characteristics and circumstances of the emergence of micro-resistances against these schemes.

To rebuild these schemes, we conducted interviews, observation and collected documents. This analysis revealed corruption territorialization expressed in the articulation between public and private sector, local micro-resistances, and the schemes consequences at the territory and the daily life of workers.

Keywords: Corrupt practices – domination – micro-resistance - territory


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 Some considerations on the concept of Labor in Karl Marx and critical analysis that makes Jürgen Habermas


Juan A. Fraiman


The category labor in Marxist literature is revalued to the late publication of the so-called Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of the young Marx. Among the various contemporary readings, Habermas made ​a critical interpretation of those writings rather philosophical-anthropological character and thus will reformulate the conceptualization of Labor. However, Habermas not abandon his interest in Marx and labor, will approach the phenomenon of "reification", but only taking back criticism that Marx developed in Capital, especially in exposing the commodity fetishism, with intent to reformulate in terms of a theory of communication.

Keywords: Labor, interaction, marxism, commodity fetishism, communicative action.


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 Between land rearrangement and historical claims. The process of conformation of Aboriginal Integral Law in Formosa


Miguel Leone Jouanny

The promulgation of Aboriginal Integral Law in Formosa in 1984 opened a new time in the story of legal treatment about indigene in Argentina. This paper makes socio-historical analysis about the process of construction of that law, trying to understand not only the political content of this legal mechanism but also the nexus of political relationships in which the law approval has been inserted. The paper shows that this approval was linked to ways of organizations and mobilizations generated by indigenous communities of the province and links with religious activists. It is stated that the first governmental impulses towards legislate indigenous issues were not so related to an intention of recognizing rights, but to an administrative and bureaucratic approach towards a land rearrangement.

Key words:  legal treatment about indigene – Formosa – indigenous organization – indigenous policy


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The crossroads of the growing- wine workers: the trade unions and capital


Margarita Moscheni y Cindy Carrizo

The province of San Juan has structured its productive machine in base to the growing- wine activity historically. The wage earner of this area formed the biggest social group which has a very diverse composition and controlled by a big number of institutions which have different normative, interests, stories and strategy. This situation determinate heterogeneous labors realities since workers with a high level of precariousness in work until workers with better quality labors conditions. The technology innovation has as result very flexible worker- relations, subcontracting, new jobs, and a very marked earned- incomes difference in the interior of the employ structure. This presentation takes as a fundamental part the trade unions of the growing- wine workers in San Juan describing this area in quality and quantity and analyzing the most important characteristics of the leaders of the trade unions province and their type of participation.

Keywords: Work, Growing-Wine, Movilization, Trade Unions.

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Dois lados da moeda mesmo: cooperação e concorrência

Uma análise crítica em busca de continuidades e descontinuidades nas estratégias empresárias


 Hernán M. Palermo y Julia Soul


The article makes part of socila sciences debats about working class contemporary features, questioning dichotomical analysis that opposes na old homogeneus class to a new/fragmentated class. The text exposes a proposal to make more complex the analisys of working class contemporary composition, from the standpoint of the historial and localized sturturation of cooperation/competition relationships. The article proposes to stablish some analitycal statements to interpretate contemporary development of capital strategies and its links to working collectives. To this, the text recover an extensive review of socioanthropologic and historic researchs and the main findings of authors’ researchs

Keywords: cooperation; competititon; corporative policies; worker collectives; fragmentation

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Determinants of demand on local labor markets. An analysis of wine industry in Mendoza


María Albina Pol

Both supply and demand factors are articulated in the territory determining the insertion of different groups in the labor market. This article focuses on the demand determinants in order to analyze the ways of organizing and managing the workforce implemented by corporate actors who act in a specific territory. These mechanisms respond, while reinforcing, the processes of employment flexibility and the existence of segments with different opportunities for labor participation. In order to achieve our objective we analyze the case of the wine industry in Maipu (Province of Mendoza). The analysis shows that the organization and management strategies that implement the wine industries in Mendoza, have diversified in response to the dynamics of the activity in the territory and the production model of each firm. These mechanisms form a clear segmentation of workers at both inter-and intra-firm. The result is the existence of subgroups with very different labor conditions, from disadvantaged group, the low-skilled young women who work in smaller firms, to the workers with the most favorable conditions, middle-aged and highly qualified men in hierarchical positions in the wine industry‘s big establishments.

Key words: local labor markets, ocupational estructure, managment estrategies, wine industry

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 Prevention of emotional impact situations on work environment.

A theoretical study and an analysis of its incidence in the sanitary professional in the Basque country-Spain


Mariola Serrano Argüeso  y Mónica Ibáñez González

The aim of this paper is to reflect on the working conditions faced daily by a large number of service sector workers, as they experience many situations of huge emotional impact. Emotional impact is a psychosocial consequence defined by its lack of legal regulation and its invisibility in the assessment of occupational hazards at the workplace.  But it is also related to emotional risks and to the dimensions of which it is comprised: neurophysiological, cognitive, and behavioural. Our purpose is to suggest prevention strategies for preventing situations that may hace negative emotional impact on workers at health sector .

keywords: emotions, occupational health, emotional work.

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Forms of political resistance in trade unionism not menemist and the absence of an alternative hegemony in the ´90. Contributions to the analysis of the political dynamics
from the perspective of Laclau

Hernán Fair


The paper analyzes the modalities of union resistance to the menemist hegemony, based on tools from Laclau´s theory of hegemony. It seeks to contribute understand and explain, from political discourse analysis, the absence of a counter-hegemony to the neoliberal order in union actors during the 90s. In absence of a roadmap to implement the categories of discourse theory to empirical analysis, the text presents an original proposal, which complex its main tools for the study of political dynamics. With this conceptualization, seeks to contribute to the development of a useful and valid method for sociopolitical discourse analysis and construction of hegemonies.

Keywords: unionism; menemism; political theory of discourse; socio-political discourse analysis; Ernesto Laclau.

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Recent history of the work and the workers. Notes about the traditional and the new, what changes and remains in the world of work


Roxana Albanesi

Referring to work is mentioning a complex multifaceted concept. At the same time, workers form a heterogeneous social group whose place in social structure is diverse. This article intends to reflect on the present characteristics of work. It presents a brief summary which refers to the different forms taken by the capital-work relation throughout time studying in depth the transformations occurred from the crisis of industrial capitalism to our time.

The reflection on what has changed and what remains as tendencies in the world of work depends on the periodization used to approach the matter. The general evolution of capitalism shows that informality, precariousness and instability are classic working conditions when work is tied to self-regulated markets. The differences are clearly identified when taking as reference the Welfare State period. From a chronological point of view, the inequality of income between different branches and within a group itself is nothing new, but the degradation of working conditions and the lack of social protection are. In recent history, this situation is perceived by workers as an increase on vulnerability and risks. Unemployment –either as a reality or as a permanent threat–, flexible working conditions, weakening of the belief in collective solutions, social resignation and organization of individual and individualistic strategies are distinguishing features in workers’ recent history.

Key words: work; capital; transformations; heterogeneity.

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 A case study on urban poverty in Gran San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina) at the beginning of the XXI century


Alejandra Carolina del Castillo

The Great San Miguel de Tucumán, the most important of Northwest Argentina intermediate city experienced rapid population growth, with an expansion of poverty, which was significant in the early years of the century XXI. The development of the sugar industry, the main economic activity of the province, and neoliberal economic policies implemented in the last three decades of the twentieth century affected, among others, on this process.

In this context, was selected one of the areas with the highest incidence of poverty of the aglomeratte, the neighborhood called John Paul II to investigate the characteristics of these deprivations, structural factors and intervention in this framework of persistence of poverty .

They are used as sources of information to the National Census of Population and Housing 2001 and the results of semi-structured interviews with a sample of households in that neighborhood.

The results show the structural difficulties of the study population to overcome poverty facing restrictions in the labor market and the lack of housing policies . The state is present as a result of the critical conditions of life and the demands of its citizens through various programs that do not solve the social deterioration and only ensure the minimum thresholds of need.

Keywords: urban poverty, Gran San Miguel de Tucumán, employment problems, hábitat

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 Housework and Exchange among Paraguayan immigrants in Rosario (Argentina): an anthropological approach


Maria Georgina Granero

Nowadays, the study of housework as the main employment among immigrant women presents a transnational scale and different possible dimensions: social, economical, political and cultural ones. In this presentation, we will focus on the situation of Paraguayan house-workers in the urban area of Rosario city (Santa Fe, Argentina), from an anthropological and qualitative view. We will use a corpus based on interviews and observations, which were made between 2011 and 2013 among Paraguayan migrants in that location. We will analyze that register using the anthropologic category of exchange to define the relations in this work field. Thus, we intend to explore the implications that exchange has in the relation that immigrants built among them and with their employers, as long as, there, ties are implicated and contrasted, debts are generated, social relations are produced and reproduced. Finally, we will continue our approach toward the analysis of immigrant workers’ value representations connected with: the work field, the nationality and migration and gender condition; from their intersection has been suggested the particularity of this social-working insertion.

Keywords: Migration; Housework; Exchange; Gender; Anthropology

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 A Menem’s soldier in the neoliberal crossroads. The dilemmas of a union leadership during the 90s


Guillermo José Colombo

This study aims to analyze the responses of a union leadership during the '90s, then facing the dilemma of supporting the ruling party, Justicialist Party, which implemented a set of policies affecting working conditions. Through journalism sources, union sources and interviews study an important part of the history of the Sindicato Obrero de la Industria del Pescado. It particularly explores the tradicion political of union, theirs links with the ruling party, the internal movements emerged and the processing of that dilemma.

Key words: workers, trade-unions, menemismo, union bureaucracy

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Heterodox Professional Identities: The Case of Medical Doctors and Psychologists Who Integrate Alternative Medicines and Therapies in Argentina

Betina Freidin y Pablo Borda


Western societies experiment mutations in the processes of socialization and the job market, which have ramifications in professional identity-building. We understand identity as a continual process of inter-subjective productions in multiple spaces of socialization and of interpersonal interaction, taking into account the larger context of the growing singularization of personal trajectories. In order to address different dimensions of identification with professional work, we conducted in-depth interviews with medical doctors and psychologists who integrated alternative medicines and therapies in their clinical work in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. We focus the analysis on personal and work experiences that lead them to give new meanings to their professional practice and redirect their careers, and in this way depart from the hegemonic paradigm in their respective disciplines. We frame their interpretations and career decisions into intra-professional movements that put into question orthodox training and practice, and larger socio-cultural trends that widen the horizon for professional projects and identity work.

Keywords: professional identity; medical doctors; psychologists; heterodoxies; life stories; Argentina

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Social representations in dispute: domestic workers selection process among middle class families in Buenos Aires


Débora Gorban

In this article we propose to analyse the different recruitment practices of nannies, and the logic and different criteria that are deployed in the selection process of the latter, between middle class and upper middle families of Buenos Aires City. We will also focus on the analysis of these logics and criteria through care work recruitment agencies.

The study of these practices will allow us to observe, on the one hand, which are the expectations or what the families expect at the moment of the beginning of the labour relationship with the care worker and at the same time, the fears that these relationship suppose for the families. On the other hand this will allow us to study the representations among those who hire care labour and those who care.

Keywords: women; labour; representations; care; domestic service

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Pleasures and commitment in secondary school teacher work: transformation of the other and personal recognition


Mariana Nobile

This article analyses the conditions under which teachers work takes place in a set of schools in the city of Buenos Aires known as "Reentry Secondary School", which were created to cater young people in age to attend secondary school but were not doing it. The purpose is to highlight those elements that encourage the development of a strong commitment among the teaching staff. The construction of the student as "vulnerable" required from the teachers a special effort to grant the schooling of this youngsters, which is possible through certain "emotional labor" that allows them to cope with their work with patience until they see the expected results in their students. The possibility to maintain their commitment over time is due to the high levels of gratification, deriving of seeing their work embodied in the transformation experienced by these young students. Some final reflections on the implications of this kind of commitment and the question about the possibility of replicating such experiences in other institutions are presented.

Keywords: Teacher labor; Commitment; Secondary School; Educational Inclusion; Emotions; Argentina

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Different views, the same instrument: the figure of the conditionalities in the Argentinean social policy.  The background of a current scenario

Mora Straschnoy


The following paper aims to analyze the origins and development of the conditionalities mechanism in the Argentinean social policies, which had place before the creation of the “Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social”. The conditionalities will be defined as the link between a cash transfer and the requirement of comply with certain behaviors related to health and education practices; in the context of "non-contributory policies. The beneficiaries of the behavior are the children and the responsible adults. The empirical references of this study will be seven initiatives among, legislative projects, popular proposals, pilot test and policies, all implemented between 1997 y 2008. For each of them, the following issues will be considered: the diagnosis that led to the adoption of the conditionalities; the functions attributed to them, the actors involved and the background on which they are based. The analysis will show that the conditionalities are present in policies that imply very diverse views about the receptors and about the motivation for their action.

Keywords: Conditionalities; conditional cash transfer program; political economy; rigths and obligations; human capital; co- responsibility.


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Work and race conditions for teachers of national universities in Argentina.
The problem of mobility

Julieta Andrea Claverie


The article presents the results of an investigation into the working conditions of teachers in the public universities of Argentina, with emphasis on the problem of upward mobility in their careers. A case study was conducted at the University of Buenos Aires integrating the analysis of statistical data, more information from in-depth interviews with teachers and administrators. A large number of teachers working on contract terms a problem of upward mobility in their career paths, realizing a segmented academic structure and a high concentration of positions on the base. In addition, raw data revealed that the operation of the organization coexist structural, political and cultural factors that affect the implementation of the formal mechanism for open competition background and opposition. In this scenario, most teachers expressed low expectations of career and uncertainty about their professional growth, considering that opportunities think largely relate to the possession of capital and the use of rules and informal strategies brought into play by each subject, in the context of interactions.

Keywords: academic work - working conditions - career mobility - college - university teaching.


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Pleasures and commitment in secondary school teacher work: transformation of the other and personal recognition

Mariana Nobile

This article analyses the conditions under which teachers work takes place in a set of schools in the city of Buenos Aires known as "Reentry Secondary School", which were created to cater young people in age to attend secondary school but were not doing it. The purpose is to highlight those elements that encourage the development of a strong commitment among the teaching staff. The construction of the student as "vulnerable" required from the teachers a special effort to grant the schooling of this youngsters, which is possible through certain "emotional labor" that allows them to cope with their work with patience until they see the expected results in their students. The possibility to maintain their commitment over time is due to the high levels of gratification, deriving of seeing their work embodied in the transformation experienced by these young students. Some final reflections on the implications of this kind of commitment and the question about the possibility of replicating such experiences in other institutions are presented.

Key Words: Teacher labor; Commitment; Secondary School; Educational Inclusion; Emotions; Argentina.

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Social networks and participation in the labor market: the case of Argentinean immigrants in Spain (1976-2006)


Fernando Osvaldo Esteban


The aim of the paper is to study the employment of Argentinean immigrants in Spain analyzing social networks of immigrants. The article presents a case study in the city of Madrid through a qualitative research perspective. This was accomplished through semi-structured interviews with former economic migrants and political exiles emigrated between 1976 and 2004. The main results show that: a) Mainly, the networks were composed of "weak ties" (friends and acquaintances); b) Social networks  were crucial to the economic integration in Spain, especially for immigrants without work permits; c) Employment was in the secondary segment of the labor market; d) Social networks had a supporting role in the (horizontal and vertical) labor mobility; e) Sources and effects of social capital are different from former exiles and economic migrants

: social networks, immigration, employment, Argentina, Spain


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Working conditions in new export fruit productions: the case of blueberries in the province of Entre Ríos, 2002-2010.

Roberto Muñoz


The production of blueberries, practically unknown in Argentina two decades ago, has developed incipiently during the 1990s and experimented a sensible growth after the fall of the convertibility and the currency devaluation of 2002. Since then, the cultivated surface as well as the volume of production have increased until 2008, placing our country second among the southern hemisphere's exporters, after Chile. However, this process of growth stops since that year, when the sector enters a crisis, entailing the bankruptcy of several companies.

On the other hand, it's an activity with high demand of transitory workforce, especially for the harvest period, wich is done manually and lasts only two months. It's often said that the export orientation of the new agricultural productions modifies the rules of corporate behavior towards the workforce, in terms of higher formality of the labour markets. Challenging this ideas, this article intends to analize the recent crisis that the cultivation of blueberries in Argentina is going through and its effects upon the labour conditions of workers employed in the harvest tasks in the province of Entre Rios.

Keywords: blueberry production - harvest - working conditions


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 The figure of the just French consum'actor: consumer and citizen?


Gabriela Parodi


The neologism consum'actor (consumer-actor) is used in different social spaces to go to the consumers capable of exercising a form of commitment slant of the consumption. The article shows how the figure of the consum'actor fulfills a function of ideal type in the promotion of the consumption of products of the fair trade for the case of promoters and French consumers´ interviewed in the frame of a sociological research. Observing the mechanism of requalification of the consumer in consum'actor we analyze how there is made an argumentation tending to politicize this act of purchase, interrogating the logic of action of the promoters. The reflexivity of the just consumers on the practices associated with the consum'actor allowed to know the limits in the appropriation of this figure. The field porosity (market, consumption, politics) mobilized in the argumentation for its characterization explains the distance between that function and the limits of its appropriation as social figure of the citizen commitment.

Key-words: fair trade; fair consumer; citizen commitment; social figure; ideal-type.


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The moral economy of work. The social legitimacy of enterprises recuperated by their workers.

Rebón, Julián

Kasparian, Denise

Hernández, Candela


The recuperation of enterprises by their workers in Argentina represents a process that despite its disruptive and innovative features has gained a wide social legitimacy. Which are the logics that underlie such legitimacy? To what degree this positive assessment extends to all the attributes of the process, even the most disruptive? How do operating logics interact with the hegemonic values ​​on which stands the capitalist society? Through survey research, we measure the social assessment of the recuperation of enterprises process in its different dimensions and we inquire the cultural configuration that allows its understanding. Revisiting the theoretical developments around the concept of moral economy, we argue that the legitimacy the process gains is based on the assessment of labor as a form of social, material and symbolic reproduction in Argentinean society. This cultural configuration around labor allows the discrimination between right and wrong, promoting collective action and a tolerance to it; thereby presenting, limits to the commodification of labor.

Keywords: social conflict, moral economy, work, enterprises recuperated by their workers.


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Indians, mestizos and santiagueños: Identity discourses around the Santiago del Estero rural population in the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth XX

  Carlos Bonetti

This work aims to investigate the identity discourses that were built around the rural population of the province during the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. Browsing around the production of discourses allows us to understand how "what santiagueño is" was outlining in parallel to the construction of otherness. Methodologically we took advantage of the analysis produced by intelligentsia of the nineteenth century, foreign chronicles and school notebooks. This enabled us to understand social and political conditions in wich identity discourse on the santiagueño came up as a collective subject and how it operated in rural areas in relation to the old colonial Indian and mestizo identities. What santiagueño is, we understand, was the product of a hegemonic discourse crossed by the dichotomy of the civilized and barbarian that prevailed in a period when colonial classifications had been eroded.

Key words: Santiagueño- indian- discourses- identity- civilization

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The political process of labor reform in argentine public administration (1989-1999)

 Martin Armelino

This article discusses the political process of labor reform in the national public administration, made in the 1990s by the government of Carlos Menem. Such reform involved the adoption of an act of collective bargaining for this sector of the public employment and empowerment to develop a collective labor agreement -the first- for their employees. This new set of rules has introduced an important set of rights and obligations, both individual and collective, for public servants, but in the terms of a more flexible labor relations. How was it possible that change? Considering that in the public sector trade union there is plurality, the argument here is that could be performed because formed a part of the set of agreements between the government and one of the two most influential trade unions to perform the administrative reform.
: public trade unions;  public administration; public employees; labor reform; Argentina

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Work identities of recipients of the Programa Ingreso Social con Trabajo “Argentina Trabaja”

Malena Victoria Hopp

This paper analyzes the processes of building work identities of recipients of the Programa Ingreso Social con Trabajo in connection with their participation and membership in cooperatives created by the program. Considering that this work units are promoted by social policy, the article investigates if the identity is defined in relation to social policy or to the workplace. The analysis is based on a qualitative study involving prolonged participant observation in a cooperative and interviews to recipients of the program. This paper develops, first, the theoretical approach from which the relationship between work identity and social policies is analyzed. Then, the article describes socio-occupational paths of the recipients, the forms of political relations developed in the cooperative and the senses that subjects give to the work done under the program. The investigation shows that the career paths make sense that acquires cooperative work created by the program. Therefore, while developing work tasks are considered in all cases a job, participation in these labor units does not seem to have the possibility of building a collective identity, linked to the associative work.
Work identities; Program “Ingreso Social con Trabajo”; cooperatives; social policy

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State reconfiguration and re- invention of the social in Actuals Argentina. The government of poverty (2003-2012):

 Cora Paulizzi

This article aims to analyze the process of governmentalization the State in the current Argentina (2003-2012) and its expression in the government of poverty. The connecting thread is in how the role of the state is reconstructed in the articulation of a series of discursive and non-discursive practices when it seems to confront the challenge paradoxical of putting certain political and moral limits to the market and, at the same time, enable a framework for the game to market possible. In the Argentine case is to analyze how the government of poverty, understood as " the power device " is exercised in the heterogeneity of social policies with a human face , in an attempt to complement the economic subjects ( decent work and "social economy ) , and legal subjects ( inclusion and equity ) .
: Governmentality, Government, Poverty, Human Development, Legal and Economic Subject Subject.

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Some considerations on the minimum wage and the dynamics of the CGT in the Wage Council in Argentina post-convertibility.


This article tries to give a brief account of the main debates about the minimum wage issue: its possible effects on employment, the usefulness as a tool for poverty reduction, and the different forms of attachment. At the same time tries to explore which has been the role of the CGT around the definition of the minimum wage in our country, primarily reviewing their positions under the wage Council, convened in 2004 after 10 years of absence. For this we use new literature and a survey of the Argentinian newspapers “Página 12” and “La Nación” between 2002 and 2004.
The few studies that examine the issue of the minimum wage do so from the point of view of its scope and usually in the context of studies on poverty and inequality, so the task becomes very important to rethink the positioning of the Trade Union Confederation during the months immediately prior to the convening of the Wage Council. This exercise invites to think about the relations between trade unions state and businessmen and the union role in the resumption of discussions on the minimum wage.

Minimun wage, CGT, Wage Council, post-convertibility.

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My dad is gone but will come back. Experiences of migration between the non-migrants. "Migratory culture"
in the case of Plan 3000 neighborhood in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

 Fulvio Rivero Sierra

This paper focuses on the study and analysis of a scarcely studied phenomenon: that of the “consequences of migration” in the area where migration itself originates. Namely, the case of Plan 3000 in Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia) where a significant migration process from this country to –mostly– Spain was registered between 1990 up to almost the end of 2010. The research intends to be a contribution to knowledge related  to the case under study which is interpreted in the light of concepts such as "migratory culture," "feeling of relative deprivation" and "transnationalism.
Bolivian migration; impact of migration; Santa Cruz de la Sierra; migratory culture

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Training and employment for female caregivers within the National Program of Home Care for the Elderly

 Natacha Borgeaud-Garciandía


 The present article focuses on the National Program of Home Care, dependent on the Policies for the Elderly National Agency. Over the past years, the program has been subject to considerable transformation, with the inclusion of a “training and employment” branch along with the compensation objective addressed to the care beneficiaries, turning into a double perspective policy for its promoters, contemplating both caregiving and employment needs. Our aim is to strengthen this “new” program orientation, trying to unravel the representations and impacts of training and employability promoted among women workers. After a general overview of the program and some changes which took place throughout its history, we focus on the representations that are derived from the tools of work formalization and promotion, considering the experiences, working conditions and lives of female caregivers. Finally, we examine some general aspects of their employability after training, before we introduce this training and work experience into two paths that show how, despite the similarities or possible generalizations, their senses are inserted and become fully meaningful through the personal and family backgrounds, desires and projections of each female caregiver.
Key words:
Home care; national program; female caregivers; training; employment; elderly

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 The Argentine youth and their unstable labor paths: myths and realities

Pablo Pérez y Mariana Busso

In this article we put in question assertions that, by its recurrence, have passed to shape part of the "common sense" of youth studies. The idea of myth as a social institution brings us to get closer to the assertions that we analyze, because they are shared conventions. In this sense, we introduce in these pages an exercise of contraposition between what we call myths and realities around three central issues of youth employment studies: the jobs they accede, the recurring periods of unemployment, and the configuration of their labor paths. The wide bibliography on the topic will offer us the raw material of what we name myths, whereas we will realize of what we express as realities from results of our recent researches, product of the processing primary and secondary data.
To this end, we adopt a perspective that articulates and complements quantitative and qualitative information. On one side we analyze statistical data of youth (15 and 24 years) employment of the Permanent Household Survey of the INDEC in the Great Buenos Aires corresponding to the period 2006-2010. On the other hand, we process information from a qualitative longitudinal panel of youth labor paths made in the same geographical area and during the same period.

youth; unemployment; labor paths; Argentina

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Pottery production inOllería of the Jesuits from Santiago, Chile (XVII-XVIII centuries)

Claudia Prado,  Alfredo Gómez y Francisco Ocaranza

 The present work circumscribed to the area of the Colonial History, aims to recognize and understand a fundamental aspect of pottery production in the hands of the Jesuits in Chile. Its production implies multiple artifacts it worked for both domestic use requirements for hydraulic piping of drinking water supply. We address the mechanisms of production, ceramic typologies, its importance and features of the production process in the context of the economy of colonial Spanish society of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Key Words:
work; indigenous; pottery; colonial economy.

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 Globalization and upper classes in the Argentine wine boom

 Mariana Heredia

This article presents the recomposition of wine elites face to wine’s globalization. The speed and depth of these changes in an enclosed space and in an activity clearly linked to the social elites of this Argentinean province make this case a privileged observatory of upper class in the context of economy transnationalization. Based on documentary materials, an extensive statistical and field work, it explores the local and global history of this boom, it presents changes in the forms of companies’ ownership and management and it describes the resulting relationships among managers and winemakers as well as their links to less skilled workers. In a dialogue with social stratification studies, it demonstrates the heterogeneity, fluidity and opacity of wine elites and the new principles of integration, coordination and distinction of these elites in today's capitalism.
Key words:
elites; Upper classes; globalization; winemaking; Argentina; social stratification.

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Labour mobility of workers with temporary contracts: mechanism of access to stable employment or regularisation of labor instability?

David Trajtemberg y Hernán Varela

In this paper we analyze the current status of the workers hired through Temporary Employment Agencies (TEA) in Argentina since 2008 until 2011. In addition we are interested in determining these employees´ probabilities of employment in more stable jobs.
The starting point of our theoretical approach is that the employment contract for an indefinite period, continuous, with protection against dismissal and regulations covered by collective agreements and trade union organizations, is the central form of personnel recruitment which emerged in the Western economy, and was promoted in our country during the import substitution industrialization model. The figure of the temporary contract, which gained prominence with neoliberal governments that were installed since 1976, represents a break with the characteristics of the indefinite contract.
The temporary contract is rooted in a contractual triangulation: a commercial relationship between firms and two labor relations (formal and informal). This triangulation dilutes the employer's responsibilities and, therefore, implies workforce fragmentation.

Key words:
employment temporary; contract labor; mobility temporary; employment subcontracting.

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Organizing the working class. Unions, resistance and struggle in the sugar industry of Tucuman during interwar years

María Ullivarri

The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of the sugar worker scenario of Tucumán, with special emphasis on the interwar period. In this direction we will emphasize the forms of struggle and union organization, the ways in which workers filed a dispute for control hegemonic cultural terms upon which the world of sugar was built, ordered and legitimated and finally we will focus on the internal difficulties and conflicts between groups.
workers; sugar industry; Tucumán; labor conflicts

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Dynamic in generation and quality of employment and its distribution by branches of activity, in Santiago del Estero-La Banda, 2003-2010

Ramón A. Díaz

The changes of economic orientation that followed the 2001-02 crisis implied impacts on the levels of activity and employment in the urban areas of the country which have been conditioned by preexisting structural factors that determined the transmission channels of the economic expansion initiated in 2003, on each area covered by the Permanent Household Survey (INDEC-EPH).
The objectives of this paper were: to quantify the dynamics of the evolution of employment in the Santiago-La Banda area throughout the cycle from a comparative perspective with regard to the rest of the country; to give dimensions to the problem of employment quality alongside the formality-informality axis; and to consider how the jobs created were distributed among the branches of economic activity throughout the 2003-10 period.
The results that were obtained in the work show that the quantitative achievements until 2008 revealed to be transitory and very sensitive to the phases of the economic cycle, and that the problem of jobs quality was aggravated in spite of a certain diminution coincident with that observed in total employment, all of which was related to the dominant role of the branches of Trade and Construction within the total variation of employment levels in the area studied.

Key Words
: growth in employment - quality of employment - informal sector -informal employment

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Since power technologies to technologies of the self: reflections of business management techniques on key foucauldian


The factories are understood by Foucault as one of the spaces of confinement of the disciplinary society where technology uses a special power and a particular form of domination represented by the discipline. Thus, the technology of punishment as public executions body's own sovereign power which constitutes leitmotif take life or let live gives way to technology which is expressed in a punishment more discreet, silent, it has to do with a redefinition of power. This paper examines the techniques or technologies derived from knowledge and are used by organizations to exercise power. Thus, availing ourselves of the development poles invented in the eighteenth century as techniques of power, the anatomical and biopolitics, Foucault links the perspective on the technologies of power with the classic studies of the administration. Also, certain points of attachment between the technologies of the self and new management perspectives.
antomopolitics – biopolitics – management – taylorismo -  new perspectives of management.

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Dilemmas and challenges of the Argentine unionism. The voices of labor leaders on the political recent history


The present article proposes itself problematizar, in a preliminary way, the principal dilemmas and challenges that the union form crosses as consequence of two processes: the regressive transformation of the hard-working world that was deepened during the decade of ninety and, later, the changes prepared to the heat of the social process that ended in December, 2001 and of the reinstatement of a national - popular identity, from 2003, with the governments of Néstor and Cristina Kirchner. The primary principal source of the writing is constituted by interviews in depth to labor leaders who took part of the creation of the Workers' Head office of the Argentina (CTA) and the Workers' Movement of Argentina (MTA).
Key words
: union form - type of hard working subject - type of trade-union organization -ideologies and debates on the political recent history.

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Division of labor and coordination mechanisms: Labor Studies Dynamics in Argentina.  An evolutionary approach


Latin American social sciences in general and regional Labor Studies in particular, have gone through different stages along its history. The existing literature and interviews carried out with referents of the discipline, suggest that subcontinental research agenda has been permeated by macro phenomena that were shaping the social, political and economic climate of each of the respective periods. From a historical perspective, this paper proposes to trace a tour through the development of Labor Studies in Argentina accounting for the different coordination mechanisms and forms of sociological work practice prevailing in each of its stages of development.
: Labor studies - Coordination mechanisms - Division of labor.

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Structural reforms and its impact on the bases of power of the Chilean and Uruguayan unionism

Julio César GONZALEZ y  Francisco ZAPATA

The article tries to exhibit since they concerned the sources of power of the union Chilean and Uruguayan movement, the structural reforms and the productive reorganization of the companies influenced by the processes of globalization, specifically in the aspects of commercial opening, privatization of state companies and labor deregulation. In the development of the work, together with checking the expositions of theoretical and investigators, opinions and actors' reflections join linked directly to the problematics, for the reasons above mentioned of a series of interviews realized to labor leaders, academic, leader of national level of political parties and ex-authorities of the departments of the work of the countries in study.
Reforms – Structural – Unionism – Chile - Uruguay.

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Precarious formations in the State: university internships as a pedagogical labor control device


University internships are a labor insertion mechanism that that aims to give students a learning experience in the workplace in their area of study. From a legal standpoint, they are presented as educational practices that do not involve any kind of employment relationship and therefore are exempt from its protections and social benefits. We consider that  internship training is confounded with the working conditions under which it is carried out, so that the absence of labor rights and their instability condition the notion of what it means to "be a worker" and "do work" that interns incorporate via this mechanism of labor socialization. The aim of this paper is to analyze the internship as a pedagogical control device, observing their impact on the material conditions of the work and the subjectivity of the interns.  To that end, we will use the case study of a public workspace La Plata city where approximately 150 interns from the National University of La Plata work. In-depth interviews and analysis of legal documents will be used as methodological strategies.

Keywords: University internships - Precarious employment - Control device - Public employee


Suitable incomes and job satisfaction: probabilistic analysis based on a 2007 survey of higher education graduates in Colombia


This paper is directed towards showing the importance of university studies  in Colombia, through the probablilty of getting suitable incomes and job satisfaction, using the Graduate  Survey 2007, from the Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia. Methodologically, logit Probabilistic models were used in order to analyze the effect on incomes and labor satisfaction of personal, educational, and work skill variables, concluding that the most important predictors are the variables concerning education, level of training, origin of the university, and the state where it is located, type of contract, job-profession ratio, on-the-job training, and the parents’ education level. Further research is required to measure labor satisfaction more adequately.

Keywords: Suitable Incomes, Job Satisfaction, Higher Education Graduates, Logit Models.    


Income transfers, cooperativism or wage labor? The "Argentina works" program

Pilar ARCIDIÁCONO, Karina KALPSCHTREJ                                                                             Ángeles BERMÚDEZ

Since 2009, Argentina has developed significant transformations in social policies intended for sectors poorly integrated into the formal labor market, such as the “Asignación Universal por Hijo para la Protección Social (AUH) and Programa Ingreso Social con Trabajo- “Argentina Trabaja” (PRIST-AT), both in 2009.

Here we will address PRIST-AT – scantily analyzed in the academic world in comparison with the AUH -, as an income transfer policy in the context of the generation of jobs formed and funded directly by the State.

We will consider the central discussion on Welfare in Argentina today and, in particular, the factors that pose difficult questions for the PRIST-AT within the framework of  Social Economy and cooperative practice, especially when one considers the way it coexists, at various levels of tension, with other social welfare provision methods- such as income transfer and the promotion of wage-labor.

Keywords: Social welfare - Social economy – Cooperativism - Income transfer - Wage labor.


Hidden workers: a method of including informal work in measurements of Gross Geographic Product for the Municipality of General Pueyrredon

Ana Julia ATUCHA y María Eugenia LABRUNÉE

In order to have updated information on the labor and production characteristics of a region, the previous estimation of the Gross Geographic Product (GGP) for the Municipality of General Pueyrredon has been reconsidered via a study conducted in 2010-2011, including the calculation of a new base year (2004). With the aim of improving the valuation of economic activities, and also with the purpose of having a more realistic snapshot of local economic performance, the study included an important effort to measure the non-observed economy (NOE).

The objective of this article is to present the strategy applied in order to include informal work in the productivity metric. To address this issue, both the major operative definitions and the key NOE metric are described from the National Accounts perspective. Particularly, we have emphasized the approach that was selected for the local NOE measurement, the so-called Italian method.

As a consequence of the corrections implemented, more than 75,000 employed workers and an increase of 67% of added-value were incorporated in the GGP measurement. However, these findings fail to cover two important NOE sectors: housing services and paid domestic service.

Keywords: Informal economy - Unobserved economy - Underground economy - Gross Domestic Product


Contributions to the legal question of peasant labor in an Argentina  based around  agribusiness


The consolidation of agribusiness has increased conflictuality in Argentine agriculture on the subject of  land as a result of problematic situations involving ownership of land  and use of natural resources (water, forests) (Dominguez, 2009), an expansion environmental problems and rural pollution cases (Dominguez and Sabatino, 2005), the emergence of violence in the country (evictions and / or enclosure of indigenous and rural populations, among other violence) (GER, 2004; GEPCYD, 2009 ). In this work, we intend to make a contribution to the legal question of peasant labor, with emphasis on the role assumed by the judiciary in the dispute over land between peasant and entrepreneurs on the one hand. On the other hand, we enquire into the actions taken by the political branches (executive and legislative), at the national and / or provincial level in order to carry out the regularization of peasant holdings.

Keywords: Conflict – Land – Peasant – Judicial – Legal -Political strategies.


Corporations, entrepreneurs, social alliances and political disputes in the return of Peronism (1969-1974)


The period in Argentina’s history that extends between Cordobazo and Perón’s return was particularly turbulent. A crisis of accumulation that had dragged on since the 1950s, together with  popular activism led to a regime crisis and forced an opening to democracy. In this troubled landscape Perón’s return, banned for 18 years, was conceived. In addition to the support his return elicited from the working class and the petty bourgeoisie, Peronism was also supported by various sectors of the ruling class. In many cases, it was the same sectors that had supported the coup of 1955 and the prohibition of the following years. In this paper we analyze, based on the reconstruction of political interventions by major interest groups, the disputes within the ruling class about the return of Peronism. We study the resurgence of the reformist alliance, their confrontations with the "liberal" pole and the attraction that Peronism  held for many entrepreneurs. We hope to contribute to the knowledge of one of the least studied aspects of this process.

Keywords: Bourgeoisie – Peronism – strategy - alliances


Notes about the concept of Productive Model: structure, social formation and  production of subjectivities.

Osvaldo BLANCO y Dasten JULIÁN

This article discusses the development of a production model concept as a mode of accumulation, production of social relations, subjectivity and social organization. It presents a look at their interpretations and conceptual genealogies, its application under different paradigms, and a proposal from social theory to extend the field of analysis and meaning. We introduce the problem of complexity and multidimensionality in the formation of subjectivities and identities from the work- and non-work contexts, extending the field of analysis, beyond the world of work, which is itself economically productive. Finally we propose guidelines for empirical studies to systematize the current matrix of domination, from emergent phenomena in the field of the World of Work.

Keywords: Productive Model – Subjectivity - Social Class – Consumption - Identity.


The labor market of sociologists in Argentina since the restoration of democracy.  The case of  UBA graduates

Juan Pedro BLOIS

Since democracy was reestablished, the work places where sociologists were employed in Argentina experienced a remarkable growth and became highly heterogeneous. To the recovery and normalization of academic institutions, which extended the amount of positions where sociologists could engage in teaching and social research, a set of non-academic institutions were added which began to recruit a growing number of sociologists (state agencies, consulting firms specializing in market research or public opinion polls, large private companies, NGOs). Although it was not an unprecedented phenomenon, the expansion of these placements produced a deep redefinition of the local sociology field, with a growing number of individuals using the tools of the discipline beyond academia. This paper analyzes and describes the changes in the labor market of sociologists since the mid eighties. On the one hand, it seeks to examine the varied spheres or areas that incorporate graduates, the tasks they demand, the pace they imposed, the methods of recruitment and circulation and the representations or evaluation they generate in sociologists. On the other, it tries to show that, diffrently from other national cases, the circulation and multiple placements are very frequent.

Keywords: Labor market – Sociologists – Academy – State – Enterprises - NGOs.


Affections, knowledge and proximity in shaping the management of child care in the home. Domestic service employees and employers  in the city
of Buenos Aires


This paper analyzes the logics of affectivization that come into play in the employment relationship between employers and their employees in the City of Buenos Aires from analyzing agreements, negotiations and conflicts that arise in the management of child care work. Using a relational approach, having worked with both the employers and those employed as domestic workers, this study focuses on the interstitial spaces of dialogue, tension and agreements that occur between the parties if the affective dimension comes into play. Our interest is to show how the relationships portrayed in affectivity operate as a matrix that organizes, defines and regulates rights and duties between both parties, making it difficult to determine a unique logic in the "relationship models" that are built daily.

Unlike what happens with the cleaning task management, we will show how, where the childcare is concerened, control, disputes as degrees of supervision and criteria of efficiency and effectiveness around knowledge related to care work come into play, having consequences for both sides of the relationship. The customization of the employment relationship constitutes a particular frame of arrangements and meanings that operate as nodal vectors in the negotiations that employers hold with their employees. The intensity of contact and closeness with the children they care for often leads employees to evaluate an employment / contractual relationship in terms of a link that is lived and expressed in terms of family and kinship.

Keywords: Childcare - Middle clases – Domestic work - Inequality – Affect – Buenos Aires


Concerning the politics as a “moral problem”. The corruption-anticorruption division as a principle of political differentiation in the center-left of the 1990s


The intention of this work is to analyze how corruption was transformed into a relevant public problem in Argentina during the 1990s and how it was incorporated in the political agenda of the center-left opposition to the national government. Specifically, we will pose the question of the form in which it was conceptualized on the part of the “Group of Eight” as the first precedent of the positioning of this political space on the topic.

Likewise, we will explore a particular “moral reading” of politics already present in the Frente Grande and developed by the Frepaso that granted predominance to the corruption-anti-corruption axis as a principle of political differentiation and the organizational core of opposition strategy against the government of Menem, thus constributing to a strengthening of a morality external to  politics which evaluated the latter based on negative standards.

Keywords: Center-left – Corruption – Thematization - Political communication.


Seasonal migrations: the case of Santiago del Estero workers in the detasseling of corn (2009-2012).

Agustina DESALVO

Santiago del Estero has historically been an expelling labor province, rural and urban. Not only is definitive migration characteristic of the province, but so too are significant seasonal migrations. That is, those involving temporary displacement of the population and that, in general, may be restricted to harvest periods. The “swallow workers” are employed in different activities and in different provinces: at Catamarca and La Rioja working in the olive harvest, at San Juan and Mendoza in grape and fruit trees; at Neuquén and Rio Negro they are employed at the apple and pear harvest and at Tucumán in the lime, cane, strawberry and blueberry harvest. Other activities in which they work are potatoes (Buenos Aires and Cordoba), onions (Buenos Aires, San Juan, Mendoza, Cordoba, Santiago del Estero) and corn detasseling (in the core area of the country). The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze corn detasseling work between the 2008/2009 and 2011/2012 seasons; that is, before and after complaints of "slave labor". I use in-depth interviews conducted with workers and former workers of corn detasseling; also with key informants of the industry. I also use specialized literature and news reporting. I observe and analyze the changes in working conditions and the nature of the work.

Keywords: Seasonal migrations - Detasseling corn - Santiago del Estero - Slave labor.


Trajectories of life, work and health of licensees in a Wholesale Flower and Vegetable Market

Ângela Maria FERREIRA; Aparecida Mari IGUTI, Inês MONTEIRO

This research aimed to understand the role of a fruit, vegetable and flowers wholesale distribution center from the owners’ viewpoint in their occupational lives and health. A qualitative approach is employed with open response interviewing. The study included 24 owners selected during working time in Ceasa, involving some ‘pioneers’ (first generation) and other young (second generation) of both sexes (male and female) and age groups. The role and importance of this institution are related to the generation of jobs and stability for ‘pioneers’ and their descendants and for job provision. In the established relationship between work and owners’ health it is  reported that the older work, even heavy work, propitiated satisfaction and health. For many of the owners from the younger generations, however, the perception prevailed that the activity is stressful, demanding care for preserving health.

Keywords: Work – Health – Food - Flowers.


Approaches and advancement in the field of labor flexibility: a conceptual analysis and preliminary noology

Francisco Ganga Contreras, Juan Felix Burotto y Erwin Navarrete Andrades

The cardinal purpose of this work is to establish a preliminary approach to the field of labor flexibility, from a conceptual and noological point of view. This paper aims to examine the issue of labor flexibility. A detailed scrutiny of texts that belong to multidisciplinary fields was carried out. In this study, the complexity theory and, within it, noology, and the concepts of ideology were used in order to find out if there could be an advancement in order to understand labor flexibility in the discourse as a structured system of ideas and even with the possibility of being considered as a rational theory. Mainly, the specific circumspections of the texts fail to consign the necessary rigor to create a system of ideas, but this phenomenon is perceived as a foundation for other views in the economic and sociological systems. Axiomatic elements are found in the analysis of the last text and this finding could show that the flexibility-flexibilization could reach a real status for a rational theory, in any less ideological sense, which could serve as a core or be integrated into a different polynuclear theory, but in both cases, with epistemic certainty.

Keywords: Labor flexibility - Labor flexibilization – Noology - System of ideas.


Workforce in horticulture of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Reasons for and consequences of their competitiveness.


The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the characteristics of horticultural work, particularly from La Plata. In addition to a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the latter, is to identify ways in which this competitiveness comes to the subject that the Bolivian horticulturalist brings, as well as to a particular region-La Plata. In that sense, the article has a first part which is a brief description of the different types and the relative importance of adopting the sector work, particularly in the last 20 years. It also has a second part which analyzes the competitiveness of Bolivian labor, a pillar of La Plata’s horticultural expansion. Finally, the relationship develops a competitive pillar with one of the main problems of the activity: labor shortage.

Keywords: Labor – Exploitation – Competitiveness - Horticulture.


Politics for Dignity: A Proposal to go Beyond the Workers Crisis


The purpose of this article is to present a proposal consisting of four policies to go beyond the workers crisis and promote an emancipatory society. These policies are: 1) The reduction of working hours, 2) The extension of leisure, 3) a guaranteed social income, and 4) Social rent. In the paper, I will explain each of them and the possibility of creating a Politics for dignity. The reduction of working hours integrates the positive aspects of the technological revolution, increasing leisure for everyone. Leisure gives humans the opportunity to empower their lives. Leisure activities will be the principle that guides social reproduction. It will be used for the creation and enjoyment of social things eliminating excessive work. The reduction of working hours will be guaranteed by a social income that ensures dignity; it does not implicate an income reduction. Humans will unite in two levels: 1) In the humanization and enrichment of work, and 2) The reduction of working hours without decreasing income. Peoples´ income will consist of a direct income and a social rent, saved and distributed by the State, that will guarantee life in periods of work and leisure.

Keywords: Politics for dignity - Reduction of working hours – Leisure - Guaranteed social income - Social rent.

The “provincial writers”: Cultural mediators, institutions and “peripheral” literary circuits (Córdoba, 1940-1960)


The specialization process of the cultural field and the emergence of various types of intellectual figure must be understood from the dynamics of each area of production of symbolic goods and their role in political and cultural geography, broadly construed. In this case, we analyzed the relationship between some cultural mediators and the formation of literary social spaces in Cordoba between the early 1940s and the late fifties. In our argument, it is important to note the forms actually produced by those denouncing and complaining about the status of writers in provincial areas, to note certain courses of action taken in the debate on the professionalization of the "man of letters" and to attend to the editorial ventures that promoted in order to spread their production circuits of varying scope. The final concentration of the means of literary consecration in Buenos Aires, the unstable situation of the main agents of the provincial circuit and the progressive renewal of the "aesthetic criteria" over the decade of the fifties, largely defused the experiences surveyed here.

Keywords: Cultural mediators – Literary Circuits – Institutions – Córdoba


Some notes about the academic professionalization of Education Studies

Nicolás José ISOLA

This study lies at the intersection of a History and a Sociology of the Professions. Throughout this work, where the notions of professionalization and disciplinarization are conceptualized, we provide a theoretical description of these two processes in Education Studies. This discipline has been strongly linked with the formation of educational systems and the need to generate layers of experts in the state. One of the main issues to address is the link between  practices and  the scientific specificity of this discipline, which is, in turn, greatly bound up with state policies. This subject is analysed in the present paper with reference to studies on the structuring and professionalization of scientific-disciplinary spaces.

Keywords: Professionalization – Disciplinarization – Academic field – Education - Intellectuals


The evolution of collective labor agreements in the leather industries in Argentina (1954 to present)

Marina KABAT

We examine the evolution of collective labor agreements in the two most important sectors within the leather industry: tanneries and shoe factories, from 1954 until today. We focus on the composition of wages (particularly in the presence or absence of payment associated with productivity), the rules related to the tasks performed by the workers and labor conditions which are associated with flexibility (the fragmentation of holidays, engagement clauses, etc.). We hope to contribute to the development of knowledge about Argentine labor institutions and provide a historical perspective on labor flexibility, to account for the specificities of the different segments of the working class. This case study allows us, in turn, to take a first look at various rounds collective bargaining, so far little studied, and at the laws that regulated them.

Keywords: Collective agreement – Tanning industry – Shoes - Labor flexibility.


Contractual flexibilty, outsourcing and workers divisions: current situation and union response in Quickfood (Paty) Martínez. 1998-2006

Sebastián LEVALLE, Lucía CAÑAVERAL, Julieta OXMAN, Florencia REVALE

As part of the struggle for control over the work process, the business class has implemented since the seventies a series of devices designed to ensure the disciplining of the working class and the maximization of profits. As part of this strategy, the management policies deployed flexibility and labor outsourcing, within and outside the existing regulatory frameworks, altering the balance of power between capital and labor. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the business offensive deployed in Quickfood company´s Martinez plant, Buenos Aires, between 1998 and 2006, addressing in turn the forms of resistance to the offensive attempted by organized labor.

Keywords: Business offensive - Labor flexibility - Labor outsourcing - Labor movement.


SME’s APYME organization in times of labor market flexibilization


This paper addresses the position taken by the SMEs organization Asamblea de Pequeños y Medianos Empresarios (APYME) on employment policies tending towardslabor market flexibilization during Menem´s and De la Rua´s Governments in Argentina. We will focus on the main provisions of public laws 24.467 of 1995, 25.013 of 1998, and 25.250 of 2000 and how APYME has assessed them taking into account that some of the legitimizing arguments government put forward to introduce changes into labor laws was the need to modernize labor relations and promote SMEs’ competitiveness.

Keywords: Flexibilization - Small and medium sized business - Entrepreneurs union - Labor laws.


Translating the 19th and 20th of December: On fidelity and tradition in contemporary Argentine politics


This work analyzes the links between translation and politics at the beginning of the 21st century in Argentina, taking in a tradition of writing and reading existing in some texts of D. F. Sarmiento, J. L. Borges and R. Piglia, in order to consider the uses of fidelity in relation to the events of the 19th and 20th of December 2001, and their relationship with narratives of Kirchnerism as an anomaly.

Keywords: Translation – Politics – Fidelity - 19 y 20 – Kirchnerism.


Urban territory and religious places. Towards an analysis of territorial religious inscriptions in the city of Santiago del Estero.


Both Catholicism and the different Evangelical churches have expanded and entrenched themselves in the Argentine territory according to historical and regionally differentiated logics. A survey of religious landmarks in the city of Santiago del Estero allows us to access contemporary information with respect to how institutions and religious groups, as well as  believers, inscribe themselves in the urban territory. It is in this intervention in space  that manners qualitatively separated from territorial inscription can be recognized and it is there that attempts to make religious minorities more visible are perceptible - especially when it comes to the heterogeneous set of Evangelical churches.

We approach this problem using the proposal of R. Segato –regarding the analysis of  religion, territory and the contemporary politics of space- since it offers tools for the analysis that we put forward in this work of the presence of temples and their role as territorial religious inscription in the city. In this respect we consider information obtained in a mapping of religious landmarks in neighborhoods of the city of Santiago del Estero, as well as  information offered by the 1st National Survey on Beliefs and Religious Attitudes in Argentina that bring us close to the dynamics of religious participation on the part of  the faithful in both Catholic and Evangelical worship in the country.

Keywords: Urban territory – Religion - Territorial inscriptions.


Labor insertion trajectories of poor young women: the place of Vocational Training programs and its approaches to gender


The article analyzes the trajectories of labor insertion of a group of girls in poverty who graduated from different Vocational Training Programs (VT), in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, between 2008 and 2010. The article focuses on their links to work and strategies employed, regarding their processes of insertion into the labor market, to observe the extent to which participation in VT courses reduce the multiple inequities when facing the sphere of labor. We argue that, despite the social and gender conditionings, the incidence of those courses and the way young women benefit from such training experiences are different, and this is a result of the complex linkage between their subjectivities, the approach to gender of institutions and the structural characteristics of the employment market.

Keywords: Young women – Poverty – Gender – Labor insertion- Vocational training


Social subjects in plains agribusiness. A case study in Pehuajó (Buenos Aires province, Argentina).

Manuela MORENO

The Argentine agricultural sector has experienced deep transformations in the last decades. Though controversies exist with respect to which changes result from new processes or from long-standing trends in the sector, what is evident is that at present there exists a complex reality which needs to be rethought. In this connection, the question for the social actors that integrate the sector is of special relevancy, since it allows us to explore the structural processes at the local level and to identify the answers of the social agents.

Given these considerations, the objective of this article is to analyze, using a case study from a party of the province of Buenos Aires, who are the actors involved in the current agricultural sector, taking into account both the paths and its current situation - in relation with the production – and aspects linked to the ways of conceptualizing the sector, the form in which they perceive both current agribusiness and their place in it.

Keywords: Plains agribusiness - productive sphere - agrarian actors – characterization.


My children drop any day in a farm and they will not be hungry because they know”: formative opportunities and youth work in southwest Misiones- Argentina”


The first part of this article presents a discussion about children and youth work and its consequences in conceptualization of formative experiences via participation in rural tasks, in a social context of structural desemployment and normative change. The second part is focussed on the relevance of de-peasantization and re-peasantization, as concepts formulated and applied in other regional contexts, to understand living conditions of squatters and farmers in the zone under study (southwest of Misiones-Argentina). Finally, via the presentations of two families, I want to discuss how these social conditions have influence in formative opportinities in rural work for different generations.

Keywords: Peasants – Rural work – Formative experiences – Youth


Constitution and redefinition of political identities: The argentinian workers´ central (2000-2005).

María Virginia QUIROGA

The aim of this paper is to analyze the emergence and consolidation of the CTA´s identity,as an alternative trade union. The CTA articulated a variety of sectors -not just formal workers- which reacted to neoliberalism and its ways of understanding policy and politics. However, despite its formidable ability to bring workers together, the CTA suffered desmobilization and fragmentation since the year 2003.

This analysis is based on the category “political identity”, articulated by Ernesto Laclau, understood as a parcial fixation of a discursive configuration which is produced by an articulatory practice (Laclau, 2000, 2004). In that sense, Gerardo Aboy Carlés states that a political identity inolves a double process: homogenization and differentiation (Aboy Carlés, 2001, 2011) in the middle of a relative structurality. Therefore, we try to understand the CTA´s political identity from three dimentions: representative, otherness and traditions. 

Keywords: Political identity - Labor unions – Traditions – Demands – Antagonism.


One social policy, three distinctive gender effects: the local implementation of a conditioned cash transfer program in Argentina


This article examines the local implementation of a conditioned cash transfer program in Argentina named Plan for Unemployed Heads of Household (Plan Jefes y Jefas de Hogar Desocupados). It seeks to analyze how municipal governments construct gender identities and, in so doing, offer different opportunities for the population of men and women that receive public social assistance. By addressing implementation of the plan in three local councils in the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), we pose the following questions: what are the actual actions and practices developed to implement the plan and what are the ideas that sustain them? In what ways do those actions and practices bring about consequences on the social organization of gender, this is, on the responsibilities and roles socially assigned to men and women? In more abstract terms, this article aims at illustrating the virtuous and adverse transformations that occur in the implementation of a social policy, depending on the municipal local management. As a consequence, the gender effects of the conditioned cash transfer programs, as long as they imply decentralized implementation, should be examined taking into account the local realities of their management.

Keywords: Gender discursive regime - Social policy - Gender public policies - Municipal management.


Work experiences in informational capitalism: the case of Argentina’s publishing industry


This paper aims to explore some changes that a new stage of capitalism has made to the world of work. As an industry that relies on the production and exchange of information, publishing seems an interesting angle from which to observe the changes that have occurred in the world of work, in which activities are turning increasingly towards an immaterial stage where the cognitive gains strength as the current brand of both production processes of exchange and consumption. Thus, from the analysis of three specific cases (Funesiana, Eterna Cadencia and Random House Mondadori) we will investigate ways of working in the publishing industry in a period marked by the deepening of financial and commercial internationalization and its link with ICT as the key that opens the door to the present.

Keywords: Publishing industry - Informational capitalism- ICT- Creative work.


Territorial organization and historical continuity: contributions to an understanding of the national congresses of the Peronist Slum Dwellers Movement (1973-1974)


A number of new perspectives formulated during the last two decades link the increase in the precarity of working conditions with the rise of territorial organizations. These approaches also propose that the emergence of the territory as a key for demands regarding better living conditions can be seen as a new element that characterize the change of century.   

This article, instead, emphasizes a number of continuities between the territorial organizations in the present, and those developed historically in Argentina. With this aim, it will analyze two national congresses organized by the Peronist Slum Dwellers Movement, in 1973 and 1974. These congresses were attended by delegates of numerous slums, just a few months before an intense illegal and selective repression was implemented in the country. This repression was first led by the so called Triple A, and right after the military coup of 24th May 1976, it remained in charge of the Armed Forces.

Even if the systematic and prolonged repression affected in a negative way the capacity of response in the analyzed territories, it did not definitively eliminate the existing tradition of organization and some of its main characteristics remained until the democratic recovery in 1983, resisting even the hyperinflation crisis, the convertibility crisis, and the 2001 crisis. This is why, in spite of the differences created by each particular context, a historical continuity can be identified, thus questioning the so called “irruption” of territory.          

Keywords: Territory – Slums – History – Organization - Continuity


Is everything allowed in literature? The Argentine literary game

Verónica TOBEÑA

This work focuses on those disputes about the literary canon that arise in terms of market literature vs. academic literature. With this task in mind, it describes and analyzes some controversies -mostly involving writers- which are divided along these lines. These debates and that evocations that this arouses in some of those involved in the literary game allow us to reflect on the unwritten rules of literary skill. The article aims to review the dynamics and logic of the literary field as it emerges from the analysis of disputes and aims to reflect on the type of game that places literature as a scene of confrontation and competition.

Keywords: Market - Academy - Canon - Literary field


El Liberal newspaper and the origins of Peronism in Santiago del Estero

José Vicente VEZZOSI 

Recent research has revealed that in a context where the working class was weak, traditional local powers have been essential in the original configuration of Peronism. The extracentric interpretations have proved to be useful to discern the importance of historical actors of Santiago del Estero´s field of power in this constitutive process: conservative leaders, radical antipersonalists, the Catholic Church, and many sectors of the local oligarchy.

But, did all corporate agents of Santiago del Estero´s field of power initially align with Peronism? In this paper we analyze the position taken by the main communication actor in the province: the newspaper El Liberal. We dig into old copies of that time trying to find their editorial line and the anti-Peronist enunciation in the Province. We can see that the actions and positions assumed by actors will not respond to a single logic, instead each case had to do with their interests, traditional ideological positions in the field, the careers of the agents, etc. The analysis of the role of the newspaper as a political actor will look deeper into the dynamics of the field of local power in the process of emergence of Peronism, in a moment of material and symbolic restructuring.

Keywords: Peronism – Press – Santiago del Estero –Discourse


Types of workers’ recruitment and labor relations in the grape harvest at the province of  San Juan, Argentina.

Guillermo NEIMAN, Germán QUARANTA y Mariela BLANCO

This article analyzes the case of the labor market for harvesting tasks in the production of low quality grapes for wine making in the Sarmiento department at the province of San Juan. The main concern is about the relationship established between the types of labor contracts and the presence of labor conflicts in the site of production at the level of the work organization, the size and characteristics of the workday, and the level as well remuneration systems. It is assumed that these circumstances will put pressure on everyday working relationships and will determine different responses from employers, workers, and labor contractors as well. The analysis shows that the conflict will intensify at certain times and under certain conditions, causing workday interruptions, layoffs, resistances, disciplining measures, among other tensions taking place at the working relationship itself.

Keywords: Agrarian wage worker - Transient worker - Labor relation - Labor resistance - Worker's contractor.

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Work and Care: the promotion of justice through conciliation policies with gender perspective


In Argentina, in the 1970s began a period of growth in the participation of women in the labor market that was sustained and deepened to the present. However, at the household level, women continued to be primarily responsible for domestic work and care, often assuming a double workday, a phenomenon that gave rise to several questions about the justice of such an unequal division of labor.

This article shows the relative position of women in the labor market and the progress in their participation, in contrast to the limits of these changes and the persistent inequalities. The aim is to think about the need to generate public policies and institutional arrangements to enable reconciliation and promote a more equal distribution paid and unpaid work time.

Keywords: sexual division of labor - reconciliation policies – care - employment.


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Prevention as workfare: welfare since the intersection between social policies and crime policies.

Emilio Jorge AYOS

The aim of this article is to analyze the ways of articulations between two social fields: social policies and crime policies. We describe such articulation looking at strategies for social crime prevention in Argentina during the period 2000-2010. Specifically we focus on the ways such strategies put in question their ties with social intervention, particularly with the area of unemployment attendance. The findings we present are part of a broader research. Such research use a qualitative approach in order to accomplish its objective: to analyze the ways in which the link between living conditions and crime was reconstructed on social crime prevention. We understand these linking as “overlap spaces” between social policies and crime policies. The historical and political context that goes through these processes illustrates how the cleavage security-insecurity is one of the foundations axis from which both camps are organized. This situation permeate discussions, principles, rationalities, and methods of intervention. We argue that this association has become problematic in terms of an exterior and instrumentality of social policy regarding to preventive strategies focused on the idea of labor compensation (workfare) or job training.

Keywords: Crime prevention – Social policy – workfare – welfare – security.

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Informal in Argentina. An approach from multivariate data analysis in the early years of economic recovery (2003-2006)


The concept of informality, long debated in social sciences, has not found a single definition. The many attempts to measure this phenomenon have collided with this basic ambiguity. However, its undeniable presence in the streets, jobs and fairs, among many other places and situations, plus the perception of its steady growth in the cities, make this sector one of those which calls for an urgent advance in its knowledge.

Therefore, in this paper we try to approach informality in Argentina in a descriptive way using multivariate data analysis, for the first years of economic recovery (2003-2006). In particular, we use principal component analysis, based on data for the different provinces, to apply a conceptual-methodological strategy to map informality in Argentina based on the particular forms the phenomenon takes in this country. The approach adopted sought to overcome the limitations recovering the perspective of job precariousness, which extends the conceptual frontier of the term, and accounts for all types of informal insertion.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis - Argentina - Informality - Precarious work.

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On the construction of a dissident habitus. Jorge Gumier Maier (1953-1984)

            Mariana CERVIÑO

This article aims to observe the intellectual production fields that remained active during the last dictatorship in Argentina. We propose to interprete the values involved in the different artistic options and practices of Jorge Gumier Miaer, in order to identify the symbolic, political and moral universes that define the type of social actor he represents. His mode of construction as intellectual, place him at a type who we can call “vocational” and “dissident”. The first trait refers to the particular relationship he builds with the culture goods, where art is inseparable from life. The second of its properties refers that other regularity we can follow in his options: in differents ways, they are always opposed to the dominant values and criteria of the global society.

From his family background, and fragments of its interventions in alternative and oppossed publications within the dictatorship, we track the genesis of the dispositions of Gumier Maier (his habitus). His intellectual interventions let us identifie an artistic and intellectual ethos, that goes more beyond its case, representing a type of agents inside the peripheric area of the cultural field through the period, that emerge into the field itself, from the return of democracy. We will regard, on one hand the evolution of the field since 1978 to 1984, and secondly, the elements of continuity that link the social spaces around cultural publications as El Expreso Imaginario (The imaginary express), El Porteño (The Porteño) and Sodoma (Sodom).

Keywords: cultural field of Buenos Aires – Dictatorship – habitus - dissident intellectuals – homosexualities - vocation.


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Political subjectivation process of manufacturing workers in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago of Chile in the context of fragmented work.


In last decades, has brought into question the centrality of labour. This had consequences not only in terms of economic productivity, but also on the lives of people, in the objective and subjective. This research focuses on the subjective level, specifically in the description of political subjectivation processes of manufacturing workers in the Metropolitan Region in the context of fragmented work. We consider the political subjectivation as a product of a relationship between three spheres: Centrality of work, Social Integration and Political Character. The spheres are constructed from deductive-inductive logic. We examined the ways in which they relate, identifying which become relevant and which elements are composed. It tries to observe how these subjectivities are constructed and how policies are embodied in action mechanisms. The results show that political subjectivation processes are mainly from the areas of the Centrality of labor and Social Integration.

Keywords: Centrality of work - Fragmented work - Political Subjetification - Lives of working class.

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Social vulnerability and unemployability: Reflections from a qualitative study on recycling social program

Cecilia CROSS

In this paper we present the results of a qualitative inquiry started on 2001, oriented to study local processes of social policies implementation in Buenos Aires. In particular we have focused on those policies which offer labor positions to people defined by its “social vulnerability” associated to their “lack of employability”.

In this article we present the results of the research conducted on recycling social plants built on a sanitary filling. Departing from total social labor organization approach, we analyze this program configuration and the meanings attributed to their labor position by two female workers.

Keywords: social policies - social vulnerability - experiences articulation - total social labor organization - contemporary working lives - recycling social plants.  


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Upward social mobility trajectories of families of working class origin in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires


This article analyses the articulation between the conditions of possibilities, resources mobilized and experiences involved in upward social mobility trajectories of families of working class origin in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires during the mid twentieth and early twenty first century. The families studied belong to three different migratory flues: Europe, inside Argentine and a Latin American country.

The theoretical approach understands social mobility process depending on the articulation of: I. opening/closing of educational/occupational opportunities at the level of class structure, II. the options and limitations related to family class origin and belonging groups, III. the agency of individuals to act under these circumstances. The study is based on a biographical reconstruction of three families’ histories selected from a typology of class trajectories previously identified in a quantitative approach.

The analysis shows some features of the intergenerational transmission of cultural legacies, economic resources and social relations that occurs within working class families and favors upward mobility. It also describes how the lives of individuals are influenced by macro-historical processes, the central role of individuals and their families in taking advantage of opportunities, as well as the strength that allows them to overcome adverse circumstances. The pathways described show that there is no abrupt change in family class trajectories, but the accumulation of many short-distance movements through family histories that involve the effort of different generations.

Keywords: Upward Social Mobility - Family histories - Working Class - Upward mobility social mechanisms

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Social Dialogue and Training: The Use of Bipartite Committee in Chile

Nicolás DIDIER, Cristian PÉREZ, Alexandra MARTÍ

Since 1997, public policies in Chile have included the Social Dialogue as a coordinating mechanism between employers and workers in the field of training; however, such policies have shown little success. In the article, there are three hypotheses understanding about this phenomenon: fragmentation of labor relations, the profile value of Chilean culture and the role of worker in the training system. In concluding this discussion, explains how the conditions of Chile prevent the development of social dialogue within the industrial relations system and training.

Keywords: Social Dialogue - Bipartite Committee - Human Capital - Work Values


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Professional representation: the case of executive secretaries in Brazil.


Since the 30s the councils have been established professionals in Brazil, aiming to control and supervision of the labor market the professions. The latest entity to this type was created in 90 years, demonstrating the government unwillingness to adopt new professional offices. Despite this history, the Executive Secretariat of professionals maintain the election to establish the Council for the area, in the Federal Government. Thus, analyzing the data for training and market the profession, seeking to prove the possibility of effective contribution to representative body for growth and strengthening of the Secretariat in the labor market, reflecting on the implications for public and private sectors as employers of this occupation.

Keywords: professional council - executive secretariat - regulated professions.


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The Oppression of Modern Capitalism: A Reflection on New Recruitment Methods

Brenda FOCAS

According to the descriptions given by modern sociologists, the growing trend of mercantilization, alienation, rationalization, mediatization, fragmentation, bureaucratization and objectification, moves culture away from people’s subjective spheres, leading to the objectification of people and social relations. At present, job requirements are becoming more and more degrading, giving the recruitment process an evil nuance. To the health and psychological tests, we have to add the so called ‘socio-environmental’ test, used to ‘know and assess the candidate at home’, getting acquainted with their social, familiar, cultural and economic environments.

This article aims at examining – based on different interviews with managers at Human Resources consultancies – the recruitment criteria used by medium and large companies. This study also includes a theoretical reflection on the current situation of employees.

Keywords: modern capitalism – recruitment – employees – objectification


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Employment Policies. Conditional cash transfer Programmes: the Unemployed Heads of Household Plan in the town of Malvinas Argentinas

María Laura FREYRE

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Unemployed Heads of Household Plan (hereinafter PJJHD) under implementation in the town of Malvinas Argentinas in the province of Cordoba, starting from a description of the beneficiary households of said Plan and contrasting them with data stemming from the application of the Plan at a national level. To this end, we seek to establish relations among the characteristics of the work required to be performed in order to be entitled to the Plan, access requisites, its targeting, and the most significant characteristics of households benefiting from such social policy.

Keywords: Employment public policies- Social policies - Labor market- Poverty.


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Divisions and conflicts within the Argentinean business elite during the model of financial economy

Eduardo GÁLVEZ

This article analyses the struggle taking place within the Argentinean economic elite to try to impose a direction to the government economic policies, in the context of the severe financial crisis which explodes in 2001 and finally leads to a change of economic model. We present here the two alignments into which the elite is divided, and which we have characterized as radical and moderate respectively, taking into account: 1) the individual representatives leading them 2) the business representation organisations composing them 3) their ideological relations and  4) their economic-structural insertion.

Keywords: Hegemony - financial crisis - economic elite - ideology

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“Back to the sources”. A study on the scopes of the renewal in the “Sindicato de Luz y Fuerza, Capital Federal”

Julieta HAIDAR

Labor relations scholars agree that in the 90s in Argentina, against market reforms, unions suffered a crisis, which was manifested in the fall of three indicators: membership; collective bargainin; conflict. For them, as of 2002/3, in a new context, unions overcame the crisis of the hand of a renewal process, which is expressed in the strengthening of the three indicators that were previously negative. In this research we propose to reflect on the scope of the concept of union renewal in Argentina. To do this, we will study in depth the case of the “Sindicato de Luz y Fuerza, Capital Federal”, through the comparison of the three indicators in two historical periods (1992-2001 and 2002-2010).

Keywords: Unions – crisis – renewal – Sindicato de Luz y Fuerza, Capital Federal – historical comparison


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Production flexibility and diffusion of independent work in the Argentinean press. A study on the employment conditions of freelance journalists


Being part of the flexibility strategies that companies have applied in different economic sectors, outsourcing has become one of the most widespread production trends in recent decades since this type of reorganization allows them to adapt to fluctuations in demand and to reduce fixed operating costs.

This article deals with one of the least studied forms of this phenomenon such as the outsourcing of tasks to independent workers. We do so by taking freelance journalist of the Argentinean press as a case study in order to establish the type of employment that is generated in these production arrangements.

As part of this analysis, we also evaluate the capacity of established occupational classifications and concepts to grasp the particularities of this form of work that pivots between the market sphere and the sphere of the employment relationship. In regard to the methodology used, the results presented derive from a qualitative study which combined the usage of two techniques: a review of documentary sources and interviews with workers in the press industry.

Keywords: independent work - production flexibility - freelance journalists - outsourcing.


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Subjective dimension of work: some ideas from research with professionals

Deidi MACA

This paper presents some ideas about the subjective dimension of work from ethnographic research with two professional groups, one composed of those who are inserted in the labor market before 1990 and another for those who do it later. It is found that there are no radical differences between the two groups in relation to the meaning of work (hobby; activity of the mind; collection of values; challenge; blessing; difficulty, effort, and slavery), which could be related with the fact that the value systems, of which the meanings are a part of remain, prevalent for a long time and seem not to be strongly affected by the restructurings of the labor field.

Keywords: subjective dimension of work - professionals.


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 Lukács on the work category: implications and ontological foundations of the social beign.


This work presents the main analytical categories developed by Lukács in relation to work as the foundation of the social being.  Heir to Marx´s thought, Lukács recovers the consciousness as the center of the working process and proposes that, from the ideal construction, man determines the necessary actions that give peculiarity to the mentioned process. This way, based on the implementation of teleologically determined actions, the social being sets in motion a causal series that produces the passage from the animal to the human. Subsequently, the characteristics that the previous ideation and the process of objectification-externalization acquire in the relation of the social being with nature and social reproduction and the implications of work as the foundation of the rest of social beings practices are analysed in close relation.

Keywords: Lukács – Work – Ontology – Teleology.


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Political representation at the local level. Insights on the leaders Mauricio Macri and Luis Juez and the dynamics within their partisan groups

Gabriela MATTINA y María Victoria LÓPEZ

In recent decades, contemporary democracies in general and the Argentine democracy in particular, have undergone profound transformations such as the weakening of traditional political identities, electoral fluctuations and the influence of the media in the political dynamics, to name a few. All these changes have had great impact on the linkage between representatives and those represented, which is increasingly characterized by popularity leaders who are supported by the public opinion and establish a direct relationship with citizens.

From this perspective, we intend to comparatively inquire about the role of the leaders Luis Juez and Mauricio Macri in building the Partido Nuevo of the province of Cordoba and the party Propuesta Republicana (PRO) in Buenos Aires City, respectively. Both are new political parties that arised in the heat of the previously described transformations and whose emergence has reshaped their local scenes since 2001: while the Partido Nuevo became the third player in a system which was traditionally bipartisan, the PRO has held office since 2007. What strategies did Juez and Macri apply to draw electoral support? How did they antagonize with traditional parties? What networks did they create or resort to with the purpose of founding their own political parties?

Keywords: Leaders – political parties – representation – Buenos Aires City – Córdoba


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Social, cultural and technological aspects as determinant of design in the contemporary jewel product. The creation of value through the autochthonal, the natural and the authentic

Andrea MEDINA, Bernabé HERNANDIS, Begoña AGUDO,                                                             José Rafael GONZÁLEZ, John CARDOZO

The jewel is closely linked to the Arts and Crafts, and currently is an object in a constant re-signifying process. Its new readings recognize own values (cultural, social and identity) by exploring the material and technique, nevertheless, its relationship with Arts and Crafts has been little analyzed from a design perspective. Due to this, the following article focuses on the identification of aspects affecting the development of contemporary jewellery and its assessment by the consumer. The methodology implied an analysis of the theoretical framework and its relationship with specific criteria of the systemic design (Hernandis & Iribarren, 2000). A questionnaire was applied to jewellery consumers (based on document review), in order to measure the importance of a list of proposed attributes. The document concludes with a consideration of theoretical and practical implications on the correspondence between specific and cultural factors of the jewel, as influencers of the innovation in the contemporary context of the product.

Keywords: cultural values - contemporary jewel - systemic design - consumer research.


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Family farm and public policies in Argentina in recent years. Some reflections on a complex relationship

María Elena NOGUEIRA

This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on family farm. This type of production has been the subject of analysis and has a great importance in rural development-oriented policies in Argentina. In recent times there has been a change in its treatment, at least in propositional terms that suggests the inclusion of territorial aspects, cultural and political factors that are largely new and enabled to consider more thoroughly this portion of the agrarian social structure. The paper aims to discuss the use of this category, with special emphasis on public policies that focus on these kind of subjects today. To do this, we analyzed official documents connected with the topic and a series of papers relevant to the reality of Argentina and part of Latin America.

Keywords: family farm - rural development public policies - Argentina.


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Moral accusations and labor precariousness among youth workers at a steel factory in Argentina

Laura PERELMAN y Patricia VARGAS

In this article we present our contribution to the debate on how big companies deploy highly complex devices in order to guarantee the reproduction of the capital through the management of forms of flexible employment. In particular, we analyze how management, linked to the employment policies of a steel company, justifies the widespread use of outsourcing and temporary contracts through moral imputations against young people.

Based on an extensive fieldwork carried out in two years (2010-2012) with youths and adults that maintain different ties with the factory, we show how the management’s statements invoke to a social imaginary widely shared by adult workers in justifying the labor flexibilization of the youths. Young people are forced to wander about for several years in unstable jobs before they are considered as candidates for entering the protected core of the factory. Thus outsourcing is constituted as a key mechanism in the consolidation of job insecurity. 

Keywords: youth - precariousness - outsourcing - steel industry


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"Out of the pan falling in the embers". Employment, residential segregation and marriage patterns of Chileans in Neuquén province during the 1980s.

Joaquín PERREN

This work studies the Chilean migrants in Neuquén city during the 1980s. To that end, we first analyzed the context of this migration process, exploring the growth strategy of the provincial State and the changes generated in the population and in the society. Secondly, we analysed, based on information provided by a permanent survey of households, the inclusion of the Chilean in the occupational structure of the provincial capital. Thirdly, we examined the residential patterns shown by the people of Chilean origin in the city, taking into consideration different classic indicators of segregation and using thematic cartography made with geographic information systems. Finally, thanks to the use of nominative sources of the civil registry archive, we analyzed marriage patterns of those who arrived from the other side of the mountain range.

Keywords: migratory studies - labour market - residential segregation - marriage patterns-regional history

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About subnational peronism, juarism and other local variations: alliances and infinghting in Santiago del Estero between 1946 and 2010

Ernesto PICCO

This paper focuses in the variations of peronism in a subnational scope, providing a look over Santiago del Estero in particular. It makes a historical review of the politic activities hold in Santiago del Estero in Peron´s name by different groups such as the regime of Carlos Juárez, dissident radicals, catholic nationalists, union leaders, Frondizi´s followers, guerrilla, neoperonists, nationalists military forces, young leftists, the christian democracy leaders, former officers of the last military dictatorship, neoliberal reformers, and most recently, local kirchnerism.

The research for this paper was made gathering the work of historians and sociologists from Santiago del Estero and to fill the blanks of non-studied periods we have interviewed key informers. This case shows how the heterogenous political base of local peronism is unified after Peron´s death and the consolidation of Carlos Juarez´s strong leadership. After the leader´s death, local peronism separated again in different expressions of kirchnersim.

Keywords: subnational peronism – historiography – juarism – kirchnerism – power  


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 France Telecom and the internationalization of management: the privatization of telecommunications in France and Argentina (1990-2011)


This article conducts a comparative study of the privatization of national telecommunications company in Argentina (which occurred on 8 November 1990 and which involved France Telecom) and the privatization process that crosses France Telecom today. Our hypothesis leads us to argue that we are facing the imposition of a new management model heavily traversed by the strategic objective of increasing productivity at work from two vectors: individualization of a strong workforce and a drastic reduction personnel.

Keywords: Privatizations – Telecommunications – Management – Neoliberalism - Latin American.


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How much of new and how much of populism are there in the new populism? Kirchnerism and Peronism in Argentina post 2001

Adrián PIVA

During the last decade, a number of Latin American governments, formed from processes of social mobilization against neoliberal state-90s have made to resurge the interest about populism. These governments have reconstructed the political power of state and conditions for capital accumulation on the basis of the incorporation of demands and political inclusion of protagonist social movements of social mobilization processes. At the theoretical level the Populist Reason by Ernesto Laclau returned the interest about the old question: What is populism?

In this paper we approach the problem of the relationship between neo-populism, a term we use to denominate the governments and movements national popular, and populism in the Argentine case, through the analysis of the relationship between Kirtchnerism and the first Peronism. To the extent that this is a first approximation, we will depart of a balance of the classical tradition of the studies about the first Peronism to try to establish to what extent the problems, categories and historical analysis that characterize it, allow to us conceptualize and understand the process of recomposition of political power during the Kirchner era.

Keywords: Populism, neo populism, peronism, kirchnerism, hegemony, State.


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 Outsourcing workers contracted by the State. Self-employed workers in argentina public administration (2002-2007)


In 1995, the National Public Administration establishes a new regime of temporary employment. For the first time the self-employed workers can be hired individually as service providers. They are hired by the state as independent workers. This type of outsourcing involves a particular way of "sharing of risks and responsibilities" (Morin, 2000) resulting in a total transfer of risk to self-employed worker. They have to take the risk of employment and social risk. The first, according to Morin, could be summarized in the risk of losing job security. The second involves the risk of losing the capacity of work.

The aim of this paper is to analyze the implications of the outsourcing relationship established by the State with the self-employed worker, as well as the subjective dimension of the over exposure to the employment risk experienced by self-employed worker. Through the analysis of 18 labour trajectories, constructed from multiple meetings over five years (2002-2006), we propose to study the way in which individuals face and assume the strong labour instability imposed by this labour status.

Keywords: outsourcing - independent work - public administration - job insecurity


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Hegemony and Ignorance of Social Classes: The Independent Music Production in the City of Buenos Aires

Guillermo Martín QUIÑA

The so called independent music constitutes a phenomenon in which understanding, according to its actors, thinking on social classes would be useless given the absence of big corporations. Recent approaches on cultural and music production phenomena made from the social sciences paid little attention to concrete production conditions through which they exist, even less to the presence of social classes in it. Recognizing the importance that cultural productions assume in current capitalist accumulation processes and through the independent music production in the city of Buenos Aires, we look for both the presence of social classes and the symbolic and material conditions for its reproduction. In order to do that we have chosen a mainly qualitative approach based on ethnographic interviews with different actors and field observation at both public and private live musical events. Empirical evidence let us recognize both the presence of sellers and buyers of labour power as material condition and a strongly tendency to ignore the importance of such distinction by its diverse actors as symbolic condition of independent music production. We conclude in the pertinence of the concept of hegemony to the comprehension of this apparent contradiction and in the necessity of rethinking in cultural production through the class relations they involve. This is because far from being external to the capitalist dynamic of cultural industries, independent music is completely integrated to it.

Keywords: Independent music – Hegemony – Social classes – Buenos Aires.


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Political subjectivation process of manufacturing workers in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago of Chile in the context of fragmented work

 Héctor RIVERA, Daniel VALENZUELA y Sebastián VENEGAS


In last decades, has brought into question the centrality of labour. This had consequences not only in terms of economic productivity, but also on the lives of people, in the objective and subjective. This research focuses on the subjective level, specifically in the description of political subjectivation processes of manufacturing workers in the Metropolitan Region in the context of fragmented work. We consider the political subjectivation as a product of a relationship between three spheres: Centrality of work, Social Integration and Political Character. The spheres are constructed from deductive-inductive logic. We examined the ways in which they relate, identifying which become relevant and which elements are composed. It tries to observe how these subjectivities are constructed and how policies are embodied in action mechanisms. The results show that political subjectivation processes are mainly from the areas of the Centrality of labor and Social Integration.

Keywords: Centrality of work - Fragmented work - Political Subjetification - Lives of working class

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How many, who are the inhabitants of the street? Approaches to the numbers

Paula Cecilia ROSA

This article focuses on the theme of the inhabitants of the street, that is, individuals and families who live and reside in the streets, plazas and sidewalks of the City of Buenos Aires today. It is intended to delve into issues rarely compiled and / or worked as the quantification of the phenomenon. This problem is addressed, generally by the difficulty of its implementation and the lack of reliable sources, since qualitative methodologies that provide a large contribution from their perspective of analysis. However, any phenomenon of this magnitude must-need-be quantified in order to take action. In this sense is that this article made an approach to the main approaches made to quantify and characterize this population in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. This attempt will be accompanied by methodological reflections on the methods (counts and surveys) implemented and the data obtained.

Keywords: inhabitants of the street – measurements - methodological reflections


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Producción y personificación en el ciclo del ganado. Economía y política en comunidades mapuches del Noroeste de Chubut

Hernán Horacio SCHIAFFINI

We analyze the intervention of social and political processes on economic production through the path of a particular object: lamb meat. We take from Appadurai (1991) the idea of a “biography of the thing”. Our empiric data comes from domestic production on mapuche families from northwestern Chubut, documented through an ethnographic approach. We propose that the call “meat chain” should be comprehended, moreover, as a network, where different social actors are involved. Due to this intervention, power local structures are created and consolidated, with significant consequences over local population.

Key Words: Mapuche - Lamb Meat Production - Biography of the Thing - Local Power Structures - Personification.

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    Illusio, symbolic violence and denial. Reflections on the principles of journalism production inside the country


Journalism is a key player in the democratic, political, economic and cultural situation. Thus, we consider important work to explain the principles, beliefs, explicit and implicit rules that structure and define the game in every field of journalism. This paper proposes, then, inquire into the production principles of the profession of journalist in a field inside the country, analyze the social conditions of production practices and processes of incorporation of the conditions to enter and stay in this field. To do this we return to the empirical case worked in our Master's thesis but with a broader conceptual approach. In this regard, we intend to work in the joint between Bourdieu's sociological concepts and certain psychoanalytic concepts (denial, sublimation, unconscious), we postulate that this analysis because, while we in furtherance of the principles of production practices, enriches the analysis bourdeano explaining one of his sources less explored.

Keywords: journalism – illusion - symbolic violence – sublimation - denial


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Discussion about archaeology and the constitution of identities in Santiago del Estero

Constanza TABOADA

This paper shows various aspects which relate archaeology and identity. Our aim is to point at the possibilities and limits of archaeology in the constitution of identities and its uses as well as to show our point of view. As an introduction we propose a historical review of the main theoretical and methodic questions that this discipline has originated so as to relate them with the discussion about the impact of Santiago del Estero archaeological research on the constitution of identities. Firstly, we analyze the Wagner brother's works and theories and then compare them with our own interpretation about some relationships and the cultural identity contribution that archaeology research can provide.

Key words: archaeology – identity - Santiago del Estero - Wagner brothers – patrimony - archaeological cultures.

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Types of workers’ recruitment and labor relations in the grape harvest at the province of San Juan, Argentina.

Guillermo NEIMAN, Germán QUARANTA y Mariela BLANCO

This article analyzes the case of the labor market for harvesting tasks in the production of low quality grapes for wine making in the Sarmiento department at the province of San Juan. The main concern is about the relationship established between the types of labor contracts and the presence of labor conflicts in the site of production at the level of the work organization, the size and characteristics of the workday, and the level as well remuneration systems. It is assumed that these circumstances will put pressure on everyday working relationships and will determine different responses from employers, workers, and labor contractors as well. The analysis shows that the conflict will intensify at certain times and under certain conditions, causing workday interruptions, layoffs, resistances, disciplining measures, among other tensions taking place at the working relationship itself.

Keywords: Agrarian wage worker - Transient worker - Labor relation - Labor resistance - Worker's contractor.

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Birds of Passage. Temporary Migrant Workers of Santiago del Estero


Alberto TASSO y Carlos V. ZURITA

Every year about 40,000 workers in Santiago del Estero move to other provinces in Argentina for temporary agricultural work. This article explores some of the characteristics of this labor migration, wich a of long duration phenomenon. To this end, its presents the historical, demographic, agricultural and environmental frames. It examines the working conditions of 'swallow workers' and their cultural profile. Then, some questions are raised about the quality of this seasonal occupation and to what extent it meets or does not meet, the conditions of what be a 'decent work'.
Finally, from the data presented, a policy and some lines of action are suggested for the purpose of whit the aim of improving the employment, social and productive situatons of these rural temporary migrant workers.

Keywords: agricultural workers, temporary migration, social vulnerability, decent work, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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The Academic Profession in the Knowledge Society

Paulina Perla ARONSON

This article analyzes the concept of academic profession with the passage from industrial society to knowledge society as context. It places emphasis in the differences between the working skills required by industrialism and the competencies demanded by the economy of knowledge. It introduces the notion of employability competency with the purpose of showing the role it performs in the shortening of distance between education and work, the skills necessary to practice a profession and the implementation of university programs organized around the construction of social indicators that measure students’ achievement according to the profession in which they are developing. Also, it explores what I have come to call the “new mode of knowledge production”, as to identify how it intercedes in the socialization of new generations in teaching and academic fields. In that direction, changes in the professor’s role and the classroom as gravity center of teaching are described. Finally, we present some conclusions drawn from the verdicts claiming that the university and the academic profession have converted in mere functions to the economy, both permeated by a strictly entrepreneurial ethos.

Key words: knowledge economy, employability competency, learning, new mode of knowledge production, teaching, academic profession.

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Discursive confrontation in the process of union autonomy of the Buenos Aires subway workers (2009-2010)


Matías ARTESE y Jorge CRESTO

 After several years of maintaining a tense relationship with the leadership of the union that represented the Unión Tranviarios Automotor (UTA), workers in the Buenos Aires Underground in February 2009 decided to secede from it and form Asociación Gremial de Trabajadores del Subterráneo y el Premetro (AGTSyP). From there, workers in this sector began a process of struggle -that confronted primarily with UTA, the national state and the concessionaire-Subway service in the direction of obtaining recognition of their new union. In this article we propose to explore this process of struggle through the discursive level. The conflict was tracked over a periodization that spans the years 2009 and 2010. Taking as support the daily La Nación, we build a base of contentious statements which allowed us to analyze the personifications envolved, their recipients and the sense of their actions.

Keywords: trade-union – discourse – conflict – confrontation


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The union revitalization in the period of convertibility in Argentina



 This article focuses on de period of the posconvertibilidad in Argentina, looking at both the change in the economic and the trade union in terms of revitalization. We will focus on de particularity of the resurgence of union player raising the need to extend the arguments of the revival, incorporating the look on a larger portion of workers (precarious) who decide to take a trade union organizing process. In the last decade there has been a renewed interest in de union issue, before the change of position of the unions after the 2001 crisis in a Argentina and we believe  that this process must be read in a broader context, because the same underlying reality national, as part of regional and international realities. In addition, you must read this repositioning in the context of political opportunities (and economic) that allow the resurgence. While we do not show determinism, or linear reasoning about what elements enhance collective action, we believe that in specific situations designed as favorable scenarios, extending the range of opportunities for action.  Thus, the improvement of socio economic indicators in the context of the setting a new pattern of accumulation called “neo-developmentalist”, among other factors union actor positioned in a location other than the period of structural reforms of the nineties.

Keywords: posconvertibilidad – union revitalization - precarity


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 "In defense of public health". Notes on the collective actions  of the workers from the Castro Hospital Rendon against neoliberal reforms.



 The neoliberal regime of accumulation and reproduction of the fundamental classes had serious consequences for the public health system of our country that underwent a process of descentralización, privatization and targeting of the attention areas. In response, strong processes to combat this shift in social policy were developed.

In this paper we analyze the collective actions taken by the workers in the Castro Hospital  Rendon (HCR) of Neuquén in 2005. From participant observation and in depth semi-structured interviews, we analyzed the process of intensification of conflict in the State during the last term of Jorge Omar Sobisch in the province, recovering the meanings that actors now give to their militant practices and their forms of organization.

Keywords: Public health - collective action - union organization - Neuquén Capital.


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“Alternative therapies” as a social space of opportunities: Paths between working and caring


Mariana BORDES

 The aim of this paper is to tackle the social space of alternative therapies, analyzing in particular the dynamic field of reflexology. Returning to the analytical perspective of the trajectories, we emphasize that the senses that make searches to study and implement this body of knowledge are therapeutic marked by multiple variables, among which we highlight two main areas. On the one hand, referring to the work area, including a continuum of professional profiles that revolve around signifiers such as "vocation" or to the consideration that reflexology offers a range of viable resources to address situations of labour redefinition. Furthermore, path analysis makes visible that the study of this alternative is articulated with a dimension of care. Here, the meanings ranging from searches for knowledge, the construction of the therapy as an area for socializing and strengthening of ties and their implementation and practice of family care. In this context, we postulate that this therapy becomes an opportunity space whose resources enable differential appropriations and projections. The research is related to a doctoral thesis focuses on the processes of construction of therapeutic ways, with special attention to the field of reflexology, carried forward from a qualitative approach.

Keywords: Alternative therapies - paths of specialization – profession - self-care - social space of opportunities.


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Different views on the provisional inclusion plan. A case study


 The provisional inclusion plan is a universal policy implemented in 2005, aimed at older adults of the country. This paper aims to analyze that policy of social security, showing different views on it, using qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques, such as socio-demographic surveys, interviews with local program implementers, neighborhood managers and social-policy target.

The achieve of this paper is to contribute for the discussion of public policies towards older adults in Argentina from the study of provisional inclusion plan and its implications on living conditions of poor older people in our country.

Keywords: provisional inclusion plan – old age – poverty.


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Building trade: work experiences of members of a Social Plant

of Separation in CEAMSE


Sebastián CARENZO, Ramiro ACEVEDO y Julián BARBARO


The recovery and classification of waste has been considered a finished expression of “informal” and “precarious” work. To depend on “garbage” is seen as the last resource of those situated on the margins of “society”. This experiences are often characterized as the inverted image of “formal work”.

In this paper we will present some preliminary results of an analysis done on interviews to members of a community organization in the Gran Buenos Aires. This people that used to supply themselves by entering the landfill, are now in charge of managing one of the “classification and separation plants” authorized inside the landfill.

We support the need to recover the meanings this people combine to define their work practices, suspending preconstructed notions such as “informal”, “precarious” or indecent” work. As the testimonies analyzed show, the members of this group build these meanings in analogy with those which shape the world of formal work. Particularly, our analysis emphasized the way in which these practices of recovery and classification of waste acquire the shape of a new “trade”.

Our data shows the need to rethink the labels which circulate in the word of work and have an incidence on the configuration of policies and programs; realizing that under recent statements about the eradication of these practices, are hidden various attempts to deactivate initiatives which dispute the monopoly of the waste management system, which now hold the private companies of refuse collection and CEAMSE.

Key words: “informal work”,  recovery and classification of waste, CEAMSE, new trade.


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Family farmers’ strategies in adverse socio-productive contexts: Family fruit production in the northeast of the province of Buenos Aires



This article analyzes the strategies deployed by family farmers in a non prototypical area of the Pampas region where fruit production has developed. This labour-intensive activity mainly oriented to the domestic market, which implies local linkages and a seasonal labour market, has been experiencing a process of withdrawal in deep contrast with the expansion of soybeans and its associated socio-technical model. The latter is based on a standardized technology package, as well as on flexible forms of articulating production factors, which include a low labour component.

The article adopts the perspective that practices include pre-reflexive and routine activities, as well as strategic actions that can be conceptualized as the ways through which people try to solve their problems and organize their resources within the limits they face, and where the range of available options and their very perception is conditioned by larger structures and the position occupied in the social space. The practices deployed by fruit growers at the productive level and their allocation of family labour are analyzed, aiming at their understanding from their own frames of meaning, and reflecting on their persistence as producers within the broader processes taking place in the territory.

Key words: Family farming; persistence strategies; fruit production; Pampas region


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 Sexual division and suffering at work: the case of recovered factories


María de los Ángeles DICAPUA y Melina PERBELLINI

In this article we try, from a case study (an artisan glasware located near Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina), consider the women rol in the factory recovery process by their workers, the break occurred in the sexual division of labor and the redefinition of the relantionship between women workers and men workers in the construction of a self managed model. In turn, we want to analyse how this changes, characterized by large contradictions, generate tensions that result in the “sufffering at work”.

Keywords: Recovered factories - sexual division of labor - suffering at work.


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 “Ser-Campesino” (Peasant Being) As The Development Of A New Kind Of Rural Worker. Analysis Of The Participants In The ‘Red de Turismo Campesino’ (Peasant Tourism Network) In The Salta Province – Argentina.



The article approaches the construction of the identity of rural families regarding the production/development of tourist services and its relationship with their income strategy. The objective is to dig deeper and analyze the category “ser campesino” - “being a peasant” – as the construction of a specific type of rural worker. To be a peasant implies a kind of naming subtracted from the official naming that this same population has received in different historical moments. The fact of not calling themselves rural family, agricultural workers, small producers (among others) allows to suspect the identity construction is associated to a specific type of work they are trying to do.

It could be thought that “ser campesino” is the possibility of improving  the material conditions of existence, modifying the economic strategies of the families involved and positioning themselves in the market of local tourist services, with a differentiated proposal. This means that, precisely, “identity” is what makes the difference when competing with “others”. In that sense they offer “what they are” and what they are is given by this identity that they define as unique and static with statements like “it has always been done this way” but, at the same time, they assume it is dynamic from the moment they accept modifications produced by the exchange with the tourists they host.

The hypothesis of this work is that the “peasantry” identity is linked to a particular way of constituting themselves as rural workers that, as a complementary activity, develop tourist services sharing what they are. “Campesino” is a category in tension between the denial and the assumption of the subject as a rural worker.

Keywords: Identity – Memory – Territory – Peasantry


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 The inside story: The biography of a qualitative doctoral dissertation


J. Fernando GALINDO

There is still little written about the use of research diaries by international students in relationship to doctoral dissertation writing in the social sciences. This essay describes the writing of a specific type of research diary: a dissertation biography, to account for the process of writing a doctoral dissertation and becoming a researcher. Based on the personal dissertation biography of the author, this essay discusses the specificity of this type of writing in relationship to other types of reflective diaries, the meanings and functions of dissertation biographies, the reasons for writing a dissertation biography and the added value of writing dissertation biographies for the reflective practice agenda. Furthermore it suggests some hints on how to write a dissertation biography. The general argument stated in this essay is that the writing of a doctoral dissertation in the social sciences has a dialectical nature: a tension between product and process that can be partly channeled through the writing of a dissertation biography.

Keywords: research process - research diary - reflexive practice - social sciences.


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 The “adventure of the hero”: migration project of the university student from Rio Negro


Gustavo GAMALLO y Pedro NUÑEZ

 The article analyses the perceptions and representations of young undergraduates from Rio Negro who are currently studying in the cities of Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires and La Plata. These perceptions are related to the opportunities and perspectives that the migration projects they have chosen present to their future professional and personal development. According to the information gathered, between 2005 and 2010, 1,200 students from Rio Negro have entered universities in the mentioned cities, specially the University of Buenos Aires, the National University of La Plata and the National University of the South. The qualitative research approach was based on in-depth interviews to 80 undergraduates from Rio Negro from different careers and years of study in the mentioned cities.

A brief state of the art regarding the youth studies is presented first, making emphasis in the vacancy area that the research on university migrations has in Argentina. Then we present the families and the students’ expectations regarding the migration project and describe the educational experience in each mentioned destiny. After that, we build four ideal types of trajectories of the migrant students from Rio Negro. Finally, we analyze the futures imagined by the young migrants, as well as the different restrictions (of social, cultural and economical capital) that they face and the social practices displayed during the migration process.

Keywords: youth - migration - college students - province of Rio Negro


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 Exploring non capitalist work experiences: the case of an association of recyclers in Bogotá


Claudia María GARCÍA

This paper is based on a study made on an economic project undertaken by two recyclers associations, whose goal is to improve labor conditions and to ensure their participation in Bogotá Solid Waste Management System. The long struggle to improve their work conditions, seems to gather momentum when they face the challenge of getting an autonomous economic project off the ground, which dares their ability of assuming new practices and especially, their faculty of subjective transformation. This type of economic experiences favours a politic conception of enterprise, which on one hand demands from actors, decision making processes  on economic practices over which interdependence acknowledgment is at stake (Graham-Gibson, 2011), and on the other hand,  it fosters a potential of thinking -it self- differently. The politics as a process of autonomy construction through ruptures and openings towards new ways of being.

Keywords: community economy – association – recyclers - politic subjectivities.


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Shared Values and Conflict


Juan Pablo GONNET

This work analyzes an apparent paradox: share values generate conflict. From an ethnographic study developed in an International Non-Governmental Organization in the city of Córdoba we show how the organizational values widely assumed by its members become factors that encourage the development of disagreements and conflicts. In this way, we support the hypothesis that share values not necessarily (only) produce consensus and cooperation, but also allow disagreement because they facilitate the observation and evaluation of organizational operations. This hypothesis becomes pertinent, in the first place, from some assumptions of the social and organizational theory which consider share values as opposite to conflict; in the second place, from the social conflict theories that tend to propose that conflict appears as the result of a clash of values, interests and opposite presumptions; and finally, from the actual developments of the management theory in which the goodness of share values are stressed.

Key Words: Conflict – Integration – Organization - Values.


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 Chilean labor movememt, stresses and obstacles for strengthening



 The aim of this article is to reflect about the factors and elements that stress and cause obstacles in the development of the labor movement around latin america in general, and particularly in Chile. The former, with the purpose of generating a renewed discussion that lets us raise theoretical and practical strategies so that labor movement can contribute effectively to the building of a new project in conjunction with other actors and agents of the civil society. Besides, it is interesting to present reasons that explain why democratic governments have not generated a strengthening in the chilean labor movement through the last decades.

Keywords: labor movement – Chile – stresses – obstacles - democratic governments


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 Would be Bourdieu utilitarian?



 This article intends to revisit the critic made by Caillé on the 1980’s, to Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice, which is still reaffirmed nowadays. From questioning if Bourdieu’s theory is utilitarian or not, it is intended to set a dialogue between Alain Caillé and Pierre Bourdieu, having as basis some of their writings. Caillé considers Bourdieu a thinker who doesn’t break off with the utilitarian theory. On the other side, he comes up with a perspective that intends to be anti-utilitarian, having as basis the thought of Marcel Mauss and the category of “gift”. The rereading of Bourdieu’s writings in which he is seeking counter-arguments to Caillé’s statement, permits to point out some Theory of Practice’s aspects that are still under-explored and, in this way, to contribute to the comprehension of the subject. Beyond that, it enables the reflection about the complexity of the encounter of two fields of knowledge: on one side it is Bourdieu, as an exponent of Sociology, and, on the other side it is Caillé, as an exponent of Economy. At last, it makes also possible to think indirectly the closeness and distance between two Social Sciences’ references: Bourdieu and Mauss.